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2014/2
Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring quality of commodity and raw material flows of gasoline blending station
Oil and gas processing, chemistry of oil and gas

Authors: Ravilya Z. SAFIEVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1978. She is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is a specialist in the field of physical chemistry of oil disperse systems and methods of research. She is author of over 100 scientific publications. E-mail: safieva@gubkin.ru
Irina V. IVANOVA graduated from Kazan State University named after VI Ulyanov-Lenin in 2006. She is postgraduate student of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is a specialist in the field of molecular spectroscopy. E-mail: irina20051984@rambler.ru

Abstract: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is becoming an effective and popular analytical technique in the petrochemical and refining industries, mainly because of the reliability and convenience for routine use. In this paper we have accumulated and systematized a large amount of spectral data obtained for the raw materials and commodity flows of gasoline blending station using near-infrared spectrometer with Fourier transform (FT-NIR) in ON-LINE mode. A correlation between the spectral data and the quality parameters, namely, octane numbers using research and motor methods, density, content: aromatic hydrocarbons, benzol and olefinic hydrocarbons; fractional composition, saturated vapors pressure. We have constructed and validated calibration models for these parameters and proposed these for use in real-time. The prediction error of the obtained gauge model lies within the reproducibility of the standard methods for each parameter

Index UDK: УДК 665.773.3

Keywords: infrared spectrometer with Fourier transform, spectroscopy of near-in-frared (NIR) range, commodity flows, commercial gasoline, gauge model, independent verification of models

Bibliography:
1. Barsamian A. Get the Most Out of Your NIR Analyzers. Hydrocarbon Processing, January, 2001, p. 69-72.
2. Espinosa M.S. et al. On-line NIR Analysis and Advanced Control Improve Gasoline Blending. Oil and Gas Journal, Oct. 17, 1994.
3. Reboucas M.V., Dos Santos J.B., Domingos D. and Massa A.R. Near-infrared spectroscopic prediction of chemical composition of a series of petrochemical process streams for aromatics production. Vibr. Spectrosc. 52, 97 (2010). oi: 10.1016/j.vibspec.2009.09.006.
4. Watari M., Ozaki Y. Du and Y. Variations in predicted values from near-infrared spectra of samples in vials by using a calibration model developed from spectra of samples in vials: causes of the variations and compensation methods, Appl. Spectrosc. 61(4), 397 (2007). doi: 10.1366/ 000370207780466244.
5. Chung H. Applications of near infrared spectroscopy in refineries and important issues to address. Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 42(3), 251 (2007). doi: 10.1080/05704920701293778.
6. Hoeil Chung, Hyuk-Jin Choi, and Min-Sik Ku. Rapid Identification of Petroleum Products by Near-Infrared spectroscopy. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1999, vol. 20, no. 9.
7. Tonkov M.V. Fourier spectroscopy —maximum information for minimum time. Sorosovskiy education journal, t. 7, no. 1, 2001. (in Russian).
8. Carlos-A. Baldrich Ferrer, Luz-Angela Novoa Mantilla. Infrared spectrophotometry, a rapid and effective tool for characterization of direct distillation naphthas. CT&F, Colombia, 2005, no. 3.
9. Chung H., Ku M.S., Lee J.S. Comparison of near-infrared and mid-infrared spectroscopy for the determination of distillation property of kerosene. Vib. Spectrosc. 1999, no. 20, p. 155–163.
10. Ingrid Komorizono de Oliveira, Werickson F. de Carvalho Rocha, Ronei J. Poppi Application of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate control charts for monitoring biodiesel blends. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2009, 642, p. 217–221.
11. Monteiro M.R., Ferreira A.G. Determination of biodiesel blend levels in different diesel samples by 1H NMR. Fuel, 2009, no. 88, p. 691–696.
12. Peinder P., Visser T. Partial least squares modeling of combined infrared, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra to predict long residue properties of crude oils. Vibrational spectroscopy, 2009, p. 8.
13. Narve Aske, Harald Kallevik, and Johan Sjoblom Determination of saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltenic (SARA) components in crude oils by means of infrared and near-infrared spectroscopy. Energy & Fuels, 2001, no. 15, p. 1304–1312.
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20. Purevseren Sarangerel. Express method for analysis of crude oils and crude oil fractions properties during crude oil refining. Dokt, Diss., Moscow, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2003, 177 p. (in Russian).
21. Filatov V.M. Razrabotka xemometricheskix metodik express-analisa pokazateley kachestva I sostava neftyanix system s primeneniem metoda blizhney infrakarasnoy spectroscopii, Dokt, Diss., Moscow, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2010, 117 p. (in Russian).
22. Balabin P.M. Sozdanie express metodov analisa pokazateley kachestva distillyatnix fracsii na osnove kolebatelnoy spectroskopii. Dokt, Diss., Moscow, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2013, 110 p. (in Russian).
23. Balabin R.M., Lomakina E.I. Support vector machine regression (SVR/LS-SVM) — an alternative to neural networks (ANN) for analytical chemistry. Comparison of nonlinear methods on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data. Analyst 136, 1703, 2011.
24. Balabin R.M., Safieva R.Z. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for biodiesel analysis: Fractional composition, iodine value, and cold filter plugging point from one vibrational spectrum. Energy & Fuels 25, 2373, 2011.
25. Balabin R.M., Safieva R.Z., Lomakina E.I. Gasoline classification using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data: Comparison of multivariate techniques. Anal. Chim. Acta 671, 27, 2010.
26. Balabin R.M., Safieva R.Z. Gasoline classification by source and type based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy data. Fuel 87, 1096, 2008.
27. Balabin R.M., Smirnov S.V. Variable selection in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy: Benchmarking of feature selection methods on biodiesel data. Anal. Chem. Acta 692, 63, 2011.
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29. ASTM 6122 Standard Practice for Validation of Multivariate Process Infrared Spectrophotometers.
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2014/2
Formation of petroleum hydrocarbons from bacterial biomass
Oil and gas processing, chemistry of oil and gas

Authors: Maxim V. GIRUTS graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2004. He is Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He specializes in the field of chemistry and geochemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons. He is author of more than 50 scientific publications. E-mail: moxixh@yahoo.com
Guram N. GORDADZE graduated from the Georgian Polytechnic Institute in 1963; he is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences and Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Full Professor of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He specializes in the field of chemistry and geochemistry of petroleum hydrocarbons. He is author of over 300 scientific publications. E-mail: gordadze@rambler.ru
Alexandra R. STROEVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2012. She is postgraduate student at the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She specializes in the field of microbiology. She is author of 11 scientific publications. Е-mail: stroeva@inbox.ru
Vladimir N. KOSHELEV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1975, he is Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is a specialist in the art of synthetic organic chemistry and petro chemistry. He is author of over 280 scientific publications E-mail: koshelev.v@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The analysis of compounds of native biomass as well as of thermolysis products and biomass thermocatalisys of chemo-organo-heterotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa RM and Arthrobacter sp. RV. In the soluble portion of the biomass we identified marginal n-alkanes mostly with an odd number of carbon atoms (C7-C17) and with one carbon atom more than the corresponding unsaturated fatty acid n-(C8-C18), as well as high molecular n-alkanes with an even number of carbon atoms in molecules of C22, C24, C30, C32 composition. Both strains synthesized unsaturated irregular izoprenane – squalene (2,6,10,15, 19,23-geksamethyltetracosane-6,10,14,18,22-2-hexane). It is suggested that the reason for the prevalence of n-alkanes with an odd number of carbon atoms in immature oils is not only the decarboxylation of the corresponding acids, but also bacterial synthesis. The products of thermolysis and thermocatalysis of the insoluble portion of biomass of these strains of bacteria showed the same hydrocarbon biomarkers as those present in oils , i.e. n-alkanes, C13-C20 izoprenanes, including regular izoprenane of regular C17 composition, which is virtually absent in all the world oils, as well as steranes and also terpanes. The products of thermolysis of both strains of bacteria showed the prevalence of n-alkanes with an odd number of carbon atoms per molecule (n-R9, n-C11, n-C15 and n-C17), while thermocatalysts displayed n-alkanes with an even number of atoms (n-C16 n-C18 and n-C20). The distribution of regular C27-C29 steranes resembles that in marine oils generated in clay strata, whereas the ratio of adiantane to hopane (G29/G30) is characteristic of organic matter generated in carbonate strata. Thermolysis products of the insoluble portion of bacteria generated proto-adamantanes and proto-diamantanes while the products of thermocatalysis with aluminosilicate also generated C10-C13 adamantanes and C14-C16 diamantanes. It is suggested that one of the possible ways for the formation of diamond-like structure of hydrocarbons in oils can be catalytic conversion of biomass of bacteria

Index UDK: УДК 579.22:579.66:547.912

Keywords: origin of petroleum, petroleum hydrocarbons, bacteria, prokaryotes, thermolysis, thermocatalysis, proto-adamantanes, proto-diamantanes, adamantanes, diamantanes

Bibliography:
1. Sergeev V.N., Noll E.H., Zavarzin G.A. The first three billion years of life: from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Priroda [Nature], 1996, no. 6, p. 54. (in Russian).
2. Tissot B.P., Welte, D.H. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978.
3. Petrov Al.A., Abryutina N.N. Isoprenoid hydrocarbons of petroleum. Uspehi himii [Russian Chemical Reviews], 1989, vol. LVIII, 983 p. (in Russian).
4. Petrov Al.A. Petroleums of the early stages of petroleum generation. Geologija nefti i gaza [Oil and gas geology], 1988, no. 10, 50 p. (in Russian).
5. Gordadze G.N., Grunis E.B., Sokolov A.V., Rusinova G.V., Gordadze T.I. On the question of exploration of oil fields using direct geochemical methods. Geologija, geofizika i razrabotka neftjanyh i gazovyh mestorozhdenij [Geology, geophysics and development of oil and gas fields], 2004, no. 4, 54 p. (in Russian).
6. Gordadze G.N. Termoliz organicheskogo veshhestva v neftegazopoiskovoj geohimii [Thermolysis of organic matter in the oil and gas geochemistry]. Moscow, 2002, 336 p. (in Russian).
7. Nazina T.N., Sokolova D.S. , Grigoryan A.A., Xue Y.F., Belyaev S.S., Ivanov M.V. Education oil-displacing compounds by microorganisms from the Daqing oilfield of China (PRC). Mikrobiologija [Microbiology], 2003, vol. 72, p. 206–211.
8. Dobrovolskaya T.G., Skvortsova I.N., Lisak L.V. Metody opredelenija i identifikacii pochvennyh bakterij [Methods of the determination and identification of soil bacteria]. Moscow, 1990, 72 p. (in Russian).
9. Petrov A.A. Uglevodorody nefti [Petroleum hydrocarbons]. Moscow, 1984, 263 p. (in Russian).
10. Petrov A.A. Geochemical typing of petroleums. Geohimija [Geochemistry International], 1994, no. 6, p. 876–891.
11. Gordadze G.N., Giruts M.V., Koshelev V.N. Organicheskaja geohimija uglevodorodov [Organic geochemistry of hydrocarbons], Moscow: Book 1, 2012, 392 p.; Book 2, 2013, 303 p.
12. Kashirtsev V.A, Moskvin V.I., Fomin A.N., Chalaia O.N. Terpanes and steranes in Siberia’s coals of different genetic types. Geologija i geofizika [Geology and Geophysics], 2010, vol. 51, no. 4, 383 p. (in Russian).
13. Melenevskii V.N., Kontorovich A.E., Kashirtsev V.A., Kim N.S. Biomarkers in the pyrolysis products of asphaltenes from ancient crude oils of East Siberia as indicators of source rock depositional environment. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2009, vol. 49, no. 4, 1 p.
14. Gordadze G.N., Arefiev O.A. Adamantanes genetically different oils. [Petroleum Chemistry], 1997, Vol. 37, No. 5, P. 381.
15. Gordadze G.N. Geochemistry of carbon frame structure (review). [Petroleum Chemistry], 2008, vol. 48, no. 4, 241 p.
16. Giruts M.V., Badmaev Ch.M., Erdnieva O.G., Stokolos O.A., Koshelev V.N., Gordadze G.N. Identification triamantans in oils. Petroleum Chemistry, 2012, vol. 52, no. 2, 65 p.
17. Giruts M.V., Derbetova N.B., Erdnieva O.G., Stokolos O.A., Koshelev V.N., Gordadze G.N. Identification tetramantans in oils. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2013, vol. 53, no. 5, 285 p.
18. Kashirtsev V.A., Nesterov I.I., Melenevskii V.N., Fursenko E.A., Kazakov M.O., Lavrenov A.V. Biomarkers and adamantanes in oils from the Cenomanian deposits north of Western Siberia. [Geology and Geophysics], 2013, vol. 54, no. 8, 1227 p.
19. Gordadze G.N., Rusinova G.V. Diamantane of C14-C15 in the organic matter of the crystalline basement. [Geochemistry], 2004, no. 11, 1228 p.
20. Giruts M.V., Gordadze G.N. Generation of adamantane and diamantan from thermal cracking of polar components of oils of different genotypes. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2007, vol. 47, no. 1, 12 p.
21. Giruts M.V, Rusinova G.V., Gordadze G.N. Generation of adamantane and diamantan of saturated boiling oil fractions of different genotypes in the presence of acid catalysts. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2005, vol. 45, no. 3, 141 p.
22. Giruts M.V., Rusinova G.V., Gordadze G.N. Generation of adamantane and diamantanov from thermal cracking of high-saturated petroleum fractions of different genotypes. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2006, vol. 46, no. 4, 225 p.
23. Gordadze G.N., Giruts M.V. Synthesis of a number of hydrocarbon adamantane and diamantane by high cracking macromolecular n-alkanes. [Petroleum Chemistry], 2008, vol. 48, no. 6, 414 p.

2014/2
Identifying main source of acoustic emission under general corrosion of carbon steel
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Marina L. MEDVEDEVA graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1973. She is Doctor of Technical Sciences, full professor of the Department Metal Science and Non-Metallic Materials at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is a specialist in the field of corrosion and protection of equipment of oil and gas industry. She is author of more than 80 scientific papers. E-mail: marmed04@mail.ru
Margarita D. RATANOVA is a student of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Since 2012 she has been a member of the Department Metal Science and Non-Metallic Materials.E-mail: rita-ratanova@rambler.ru

Abstract: The need to develop and improve corrosion monitoring systems requires consi- dering the possibility of using acoustic emission monitoring systems to control general corrosion of crude oil distillation plants. The aim of the work was to iden-tify the source of acoustic emission during corrosion of carbon steel at rates close to those in operating conditions of these facilities. It was found that under carbon steel corrosion the main source of acoustic emission is hydrogen generated during cathodic reaction. The AE method can be considered as the basis for the creation of corrosion monitoring systems designed to control on-line the corrosion of the equipment and piping lines of the heads of the crude distillation unit

Index UDK: УДК 669.018.8.001; 534.8.081.7

Keywords: corrosion, acoustic emission, signals, corrosion media

Bibliography:
1. Alyakritsky A.L., Popkov Y.S., Sorokin E.Y., Terent’ev D.A. Determination of the pitting corrosion’ depth and Acoustic emission control of corrosion development. Himicheskaja tehnika, 2008, no. 8, p. 8-10 (in Russian).
2. Spravochnik himika. T. 3. Himicheskoe ravnovesie i kinetika. Svojstva rastvorov. Jelektrodnye process [Handbook for chemist. V.3. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Properties of fluids. Electrode processes]. Chemistry, M., Leningrad, 1964, 1008 
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3.Pollock A.A. Acoustic Emission Capabilities and Applications in Monitoring Corrosion. Corrosion Monitoring in Industrial Plants Using Nondestructive Testing and Electrochemical Methods. ASTM STP 908, G.C. Moran and Р. Labine, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1986, p. 30
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4. Baranov V.M., Gubin
а T.V. Primenenie akusticheskoj jemissii dlja issledovanija i kontrolja korrozionnyh processov [Application of acoustic emission for research and monitoring of corrosion processes]: Textbook. MEPI, 1990, 72 p.
5. Lublinsky E.Y. Elektrohimicheskaja zashhita ot korrozii [Electrochemical corrosion protection]. Moscow
: Metallurgy, 1987, 97 p.

2014/2
Land management in design, construction, renovation and operation of oil and gas facilities
Legal issues in oil and gas industry

Authors: Gennady G. VASILIEV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1978. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Full Professor, Head of the Department of Design, Construction and Operation of Pipeline Transportation Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is a specialist in construction of oil pipelines and storage facilities. He is author of more than 130 scientific and educational works.E-mail: ggvasiliev@mail.ru
Tatyana N. KOVALEVA graduated from Saratov State Agrarian University in 2003. She is Candidate of Economical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Land Management and Inventory at Saratov State Agrarian University, doctoral student of the State University of Land Management. She is a specialist in the field of land management, inventory, land reclamation, remediation, monitoring, and protection of land, geodesy, geoinforma- tics, land valuation and real estate. She is author of more than 60 scientific and educational works.E-mail: tnk2003@list.ru

Abstract: The issues of land management during design, construction, renovation and operation of oil and gas facilities are discussed. The complexity of applying the existing legislation for land reservation and acquisition for the construction of oil and gas facilities, both in private and public investment into construction is stressed. The problems of registration of the initial permits for facilities construction are illustrated by practical experience. The questions of territorial planning of pipeline transportation facilities at the federal, regional and local levels as the basis of land reservation for public needs are considered. The technique of land management operations is proposed which allows to sig- nificantly reduce the complexity, time expenditure and the estimated cost as well as to comply with the legitimate interests of all stakeholders, and therefore potentially prevent possible disputes with land owners and, in the subsequent litigation.

Index UDK: УДК 332.363:711.144

Keywords: Keywords: certificate of a choice of land area; reservation, land allocation, assessment, cadastral registration of land plots; land use planning; design, construction, renovation and operation of oil and gas facilities

Bibliography:
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Sidorova E.L. Analiz arbitrazhnoy praktiki po iz"yatiyu zemel’nykh uchastkov dlya gosudarstvennykh ili munitsipal’nykh nuzhd. Zakonodatel’stvo i ekonomika. M.: Zakonodatel’stvo i ekonomika, 2010, no. 10, p. 54-59.
17.
Pashov D.B., Pashova M.S. Pravovoe regulirovanie rezervirovaniya zemel’ dlya gosudar-stvennykh ili munitsipal’nykh nuzhd. Agrarnoe i zemel’noe pravo. M.: Pravo i gosudarstvo, 2010, no. 3 (63), p. 69-75.

2014/2
Features of legal regulation of foreign investment in mineral resources extraction
Legal issues in oil and gas industry

Authors: Georgy G. KANDELAKI graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2012. He is a postgraduate student of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Law at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is a specialist in the field of natural resources and corporate law and has experience in advising multinational corporations. E-mail: Georgiy.kandelaki@gmail.com

Abstract: This article highlights the trends in the development of legislation in the field of regulation of foreign investment in the mineral resources extraction, ways to create favorable conditions for the formation of a predictable and transpa- rent business environment in the country, as well as the existing problems in the legal regulation. In particular, the complexity of the transition of the right of use and procedures to reissue licenses for acreage of federal significance, and the use of a combined license for subsoil use by companies with foreign inve- stors.

Index UDK: УДК 349.4; 347.249

Keywords: international relations; foreign investment; investors; reissue of licen-ses; Combined License; shelf; acreage of federal significance; control; strategic companies; liberalization; geological survey; exploration

Bibliography:
1. Konstitucija Rossijskoj Federacii, prinjataja vsenarodnym golosovaniem 12 dekabrja 1993 g. S popravkami ot 30 dekabrja 2008 g. Sobranie zakonodatel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii. Izdatel’stvo “Juridicheskaja literatura” 26 janvarja 2009, no. 4, p. 1139-1175.
2.
Hartija jekonomicheskih prav i objazannostej gosudarstva, prinjatoj Rezoljuciej General’noj Assamblei OON 1974. (http://www.zaki.ru/pagesnew.php?Id=1318).
3. Federal’nyj zakon “Ob akcionernyh obshhestvah” ot 26 dekabrja 1995 g. No. 208-FZ (s izmenenijami i dopolnenijami). Sobranie zakonodatel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii. Izdatel’stvo “Juridicheskaja literatura”, 01 janvarja 1996, no. 1, st. 1.
4. Federal’nyj zakon “Ob inostrannyh investicijah v Rossijskoj Federacii” ot 09 ijunja 1999 g. № 160-FZ (s izmenenijami i dopolnenijami), prinjat Gosudarstvennoj Dumoj 25 ijunja 1999 g., odob-ren Sovetom Federacii 02 ijulja 1999 g. Sobranie zakonodatel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii. Izdatel’stvo “Juridicheskaja literatura”, 12 ijulja 1999, no. 28, st. 3493.
5. Federal’nyj zakon “O porjadke osushhestvlenija inostrannyh investicij v hozjajstvennye obshhestva, imejushhie strategicheskoe znachenie dlja obespechenija oborony strany i bezopasnosti gosudarstva” ot 29 aprelja 2008, no. 57-FZ (s izmenenijami i dopolnenijami). Sobranie zakonodatel’stva RF, 05 maja 2008, no. 18, st. 1940.
6. Federal’nyj zakon “O kontinental’nom shel’fe Rossijskoj Federacii” ot 30 nojabrja 1995 g. No. 187-FZ (s izmenenijami i dopolnenijami). Sobranie zakonodatel’stva RF, 04 dekabrja 1995, no. 49, st. 4694.
7. Federal’nyj zakon no. 58-FZ “O vnesenii izmenenij v otdel’nye zakonodatel’nye akty Rossijskoj Federacii i priznanii utrativshimi silu otdel’nyh polozhenij zakonodatel’nyh aktov Rossijskoj Federacii v svjazi s prinjatiem Federal’nogo zakona “O porjadke osushhestvlenija inostrannyh investicij v hozjajstvennye obshhestva, imejushhie strategicheskoe znachenie dlja obespechenija oborony strany i bezopasnosti gosudarstva” ot 29 aprelja 2008 g. (s izmenenijami i dopolnenijami). Sobranie zakonodatel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii. Izdatel’stvo “Juridicheskaja literatury”, 05 maja 2008, no. 18, st. 1941.
8. Zakon Rossijskoj Federacii ot 21 fevralja 1992 goda no. 2395-1 “O nedrah” (s poslednimi izmenenijami). Sobranie zakonodatel’stva RF, 06.03.1995, no. 10, st. 823.
9. Jenergeticheskaja strategija Rossii na period do 2030 goda, utv. Rasporjazheniem Pravitel’stva RF ot 13 nojabrja 2009 g. No. 1715-r. Sobranie zakonodatel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii. Izdatel’stvo “Juridicheskaja literatura”, 30 nojabrja 2009, no. 48, st. 5836.
10. Vasilevskaja D.V. Pravovoe regulirovanie otnoshenij nedropol’zovanija v Rossijskoj Fede- racii i zarubezhnyh stranah: teorija i praktika. M., 2007, 301 p.
11. Vasilevskaja D.V., Laevskaja N.V., Litunovskaja D.A. Licenzirovanie nedropol’zova-nija v Rossii: kommentarii i dokumenty. M.: Jurist, 2013, 35 p.
12. Voznesenskaja N.N. Inostrannye investicii: Rossija i mirovoj opyt. M., 2002, 138 p.
13. Doraev M.G. Nacional’naja bezopasnost’ v kontekste pravovogo regulirovanija inostranny- hinvesticij. Predprinimatel’skoe pravo, 2011, no. 1, p. 2125.
14. Ergin D. Dobycha. Vsemirnaja istorija bor’by za neft’, den’gi i vlast’. Per. S angl. M., 2001, p. 39-794.
15.
Kokin V.N. Zashhita prav investora pri nedropol’zovanii na uslovijah SRP v RF, 2002, p. 47-49.
16.
Logunov A.B. Regional’naja i nacional’naja bezopasnost’: Uchebnoe posobie. M., 2009, p. 16.
17. Majfat A.V. Grazhdansko-pravovye konstrukcii investirovanija. M., Volters Kluver, 2007, p. 38.
18. Sal’nikov I.V. Kommentarij k izmenenijam i dopolnenijam k Federal’nomu zakonu ot 21 fevralja 1992, no. 2395-1 “O nedrah”. Sistema GARANT, 2010.
19. Tagasheva O.V., Ageshkina N.A. Kommentarii k Federal’nomu zakonu ot 29 aprelja 2008 g. No. 57-FZ “O porjadke osushhestvlenija inostrannyh investicij v hozjajstvennye obshhestva, imejushhie strategicheskoe znachenie dlja obespechenija oborony strany i bezopasnosti gosudarstva”. Sistema GARANT, 2010.
20. Farhutdinov I.Z. Mezhdunarodnoe investicionnoe pravo. Teorija i praktika primenenija. M., Volters Kluver, 2005. P. 11-16.
21.
Babkin S.A., Hohlov E.S. Ogranichenie inostrannyh investicij v strategicheskie otrasli: prodolzhenie diskussii. Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava, 2010, no. 5.
22. Doraev M., Krjazhevskij K. Syr’evoj nacionalizm: tendencii pravovogo regulirovanija v Rossii i inostrannyh gosudarstvah. Korporativnyj jurist, 2009, no. 5.
23. Shabrov R.V. Investirovanie v hozjajstvennye obshhestva imejushhie strategicheskoe znachenie dlja obespechenija oborony strany i bezopasnosti gosudarstva. Zakonodatel’stvo i jekonomika, 2009, no. 7.
24. Shabrov R.V. Ugroza nacional’noj bezopasnosti kak osnovanie ogranichenija dopuska inostrannyh investicij Komitetom po inostrannym investicijam ssha (CFIUS). Advokat, 2009, no. 11.
25. Sharifullina A.F. Problemy pravovogo regulirvoanija otnoshenij po vydeleniju uchastkov nedr federal’nogo znachenija i predostavleniju ih v pol’zovanie. Jenergetika i pravo. Vyp. 2 (pod red. Lahno P.G.), 2009.

2014/2
Formation and implementation of principle: «subsoil as a natural resource is public good» in mining law and legislation of Russian Federation
Legal issues in oil and gas industry

Authors: Vitaly D. MEL’GUNOV graduated from the Moscow State Law Academy (MSLA) in 1998. He is PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Law at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is author of a monograph and more than 25 scientific publications. E-mail: v. v.melgounov@mail.ru

Abstract: The publication examines the current approaches to law and legislation in implementing the principle of «state ownership of subsoil and mineral resources and other resources». Based on the scientific analysis the expediency of creating a greater content of the principle of mining rights: «subsoil as a natural resource is a public good», it is proposed to develop the title right of «property of the Russian Federation» in relation to the subsoil and in situ resources as the most responding to the current goals and objectives of the use of subsoil of the Russian Federation and the subsoil resources of the continental shelf of the Russian Federation.

Index UDK: УДК 346.9

Keywords: mineral resources, public ownership, principles of the mining law, natural resource, a public good

Bibliography: .
1. Konstitucija Rossijskoj Federacii.
2. Konvencija OON po morskomu pravu, UNCLOS.
3. Zakon Rossijskoj Federacii “O nedrah” ot 21.02.1992 no. 2395-1.
4.
Federal’nyj zakon “O kontinental’nom shel’fe Rossijskoj Federacii” no. 187-FZ ot 30 nojabrja 1995 goda.
5. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF no. 1-P ot 9 janvarja 1998 goda.
6. Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 23.04.2004 no. 8-P.
7.
Ukaz Prezidiuma Verhovnogo Soveta SSSR ot 26.11.1975 “O porjadke vvedenija v dejstvie Osnov zakonodatel’stva Sojuza SSR i sojuznyh respublik o nedrah”;
8. Zakon RSFSR ot 09.07.1976 “Ob utverzhdenii Kodeksa RSFSR o nedrah”.
9. Postanovlenie VCIK ot 07.07.1923 “Polozhenie o nedrah zemli i razrabotke ih”.
10. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 16.12.1993 no. 2144 “O federal’nyh prirodnyh resursah”.
11. Sviridova O.S., Kovarskaja G.G. Pravovye problemy razgranichenija polnomochij Rossijskoj Federacii i sub’ektov Rossijskoj Federacii pri realizacii prava gosudarstvennoj sobstvennosti na nedra. Trudy Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina [Proceedings of the Russian State University of Oil and Gas], 2011, no. 3.
12. Morozova A.S. Konstitucionnye principy prava gosudarstvennoj sobstvennosti na nedra. Konstitucionnoe i municipal’noe pravo [Constitutional and Municipal Law], 2012, no. 2.
13. Brinchuk M.M. Priroda-publichnoe blago. Gosudarstvo i pravo [State and Law], 2013, no. 7.
14. Mel’gunov V.D. O ponjatii, soderzhanii i pravovoj prirode prava pol’zovanija nedrami. Gosudarstvo i pravo [State and Law], 2008, no. 9.
15. Kommentarij Zakona Rossijskoj Federacii “O nedrah” (postatejnyj) (Bogoljubov S.A., Gorkina I.D., Zharikov Ju.G. Kacman Ju.E., Krajushkina E.G., Shejnin L.B. Zakonodatel’stvo i jekonomika [Legislation and Economics], 1999, no. 4, 5.
16. Braginskij M.I. Grazhdanskaja pravosub#ektnost’ Sojuza SSR i sojuznyh respublik. “Pravovedenie” [Science of Law], 1963, no. 1.
17. Sosna S.A. O koncepcii obshhestvennogo dostojanija. Gosudarstvo i pravo [State and Law], 1996, no. 2.
18. Brinchuk M.M. Principy jekologicheskogo prava. M., 2013.
19. Perchik A.I. Gornoe pravo, 3-e izd. M.: MAKS Press, 2008.
20. Kommentarij k Zakonu Rossijskoj Federacii “O nedrah”. M., 2001.
21. Nersesjanc V.S. Filosofija prava. Uchebn. M., 1997.
22. Krassov O.I. Jekologicheskoe pravo. M., 2001.
23. Syrodoev N.A. Pravovoj rezhim nedr. M., 1969.
24. Venediktov A.V. Gosudarstvennaja socialisticheskaja sobstvennost’. M.: AN SSSR, 1948.
25. Alekseev S.S. Pravo sobstvennosti. Problemy teorii. 3-e izdanie. M.: Norma, 2007.
26. Sviridova O.S. Dissertacija na soiskanie uchenoj stepeni kandidata juridicheskih nauk. M., 2012.
27. Vasil’eva M.I. Publichnye interesy v jekologicheskom prave: teorija i praktika pravovogo regulirovanija: Avtoref. dis. dokt. jurid. nauk. M., 2003.

2014/1
On training qualified personnel for the oil and gas industry
Higher education

Authors: Albert I. VLADIMIROV was born in 1939, he graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1963 specializing in “Machinery and Equipment of Chemical Plants”. He has been Full Professor of the Department of Oil and Gas Processing Equipment since 1992, President of the university since 2008. He has prepared 5 PhDs. He is author of over 200 scientific papers, textbooks and teaching aids for universities. E-mail: trudyrgung@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The work deals with the training of specialists for oil and gas industry in national universities. The requirements of the state standard for academic and applied undergraduate and graduate programs in engineering and technology are discussed. The need for the business community to participate in the development of professional standards, public and professional accreditation of educational programs as well as in the ranking of universities with respect for the educational programs which are core for the energy sector is stated. The requirements of international agencies for the accreditation of educational programs and competences of professional engineers are presented. The positive work of the Association for Engineering Education of Russia to establish a national system of certification and registration of educational programs in engineering and technology as well as professional engineers is noted.

Index UDK: 378.4

Keywords: academic and applied undergraduate programs, graduate programs, specialist program, professional standard, public and professional accreditation of educational programs, rankings of universities, professional engineer

Bibliography:
1. Iljushin S. Kadry dlja promyshlennogo renessansa: gosudarstvennyj podhod. Kachestvo obrazovanija, 2013, no. 9, pp. 20-24.
2.
Vladimirov A.I. Ob innovacionnoj dejatel’nosti v vuze. M.: Izdatel’skij dom Nedra, 2012, 71 р.
3. Ivanov V.G., Kondrat’ev V.V., Kajbijajnen A.A. Sovremennye problemy inzhenernogo obrazovanija: itogi mezhdunarodnyh konferencij i nauchnoj shkoly. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii, 2013, no. 12, pp. 66-77.
4.
Chuchalin A.I., Petrovskaja T.S., Chernova O.S. Setevoe vzaimodejstvie obrazovatel’nyh organizacij vysshego i srednego professional’nogo obrazovanija pri realizacii programm prikladnogo bakalavriata. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii, 2013, no. 11, pp. 3-10.
5.
D’jakonov G.S. Global’nye zadachi inzhenernogo obrazovanija i podgotovka inzhenerov v nacional’nom issledovatel’skom universitete. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii, 2013, no. 12, pp. 35-40.
6.
Vladimirov A.I. O rejtingovanii vuzov, osushhestvljajushhih podgotovku kadrov po nap-ravleniju „Neftegazovoe delo”. Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2013, no. 1, pp. 3-6.
7.
Vladimirov A.I. Ob inzhenerno-tehnicheskom obrazovanii. M.: Izdatel’skij dom Nedra, 2011, 81 p.
8. Chuchalin A.I. Primenenie standartov Mezhdunarodnogo inzhenernogo al’jansa pri proektirovanii i ocenke kachestva programm VPO i SPO. Vysshee obrazovanie v Rossii, 2013, no. 4, pp. 12-25.
9.
Kriterii professional’no-obshhestvennoj akkreditacii obrazovatel’nyh programm SPO i VPO po tehnicheskim special’nostjam i napravlenijam/A.I. Chuchalin, E.Ju. Jatkina, G.A. Coj, P.S. Shamri- ckaja. Inzhenernoe obrazovanie, 2013, no. 12, pp. 76-90.

2014/1
Using authentic video to develop dialogical discourse skills in foreign language
Higher education

Authors: Sofia O. DAMINOVA graduated from People’s Friendship University in 1995. She is Ph.D. in Chemistry (1999), Senior Lecturer of the Department of Modern Languages of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Senior Lecturer of the Department of English Language of the Faculty of Chemistry at Lomonosov Moscow State University. She is an expert in the theory and methods of teaching English, author of about 20 publications. E-mail: sofiya16s@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract: The paper first describes the method of phased development of dialogical discourse skills in a foreign language using authentic video films. The method is designed for the students of non-philological undergraduate schools and is developed in accordance with modern methodological and didactic principles. The course ware is based on the methodical potential of still images and scenes that are used as types of visual and semantic supports for the development different kinds of skills of dialogical speech (conversation, questioning, discussion, consultation, debate, exchange of information). It is shown that teaching dialogical discourse skills can be based on different types of audio/video texts functioning in the movie: monologues; dialogues; monologues and dialogues (mixed type).

Index UDK: 37.091.3

Keywords: non-philological undergraduate school, dialogical discourse, foreign language skills, video film, still image, episode

Bibliography:
1. Barmenkova O.I. Ispol’zovanie videomaterialov dlya formirovaniya kommunikativnoy kompetentsii uchashchikhsya na urokakh angliyskogo yazyka. Eksperiment i innovatsii v shkole, 2011, no. 5, рр. 75-79.
2.
Savitskaya N.S., Danilenko R.M. Ispol’zovanie autentichnykh videomaterialov pri formiro-vanii navykov govoreniya na zanyatiyakh po inostrannomu yazyku. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki. Tambov: Gramota, 2011, no. 2 (9), рр. 152-153.
3.
Stempleski S., Tomalin B. Film/Series Editor Alan Maley. Resource books for teachers. Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 161.
4. Webb S. A corpus driven study of the potential for vocabulary learning through watching movies. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 2010, 15(4), рр. 497-519.
5.
Yang J., Chen C. & Jeng M. Integrating video-capture virtual reality technology into a physically interactive learning environment for English learning. Computers & Education, 2010, 55(1), pр. 1346-1356.
6.
Daminova S.O. Audiovideoteksty kak effektivnoe sredstvo obucheniya inoyazychnomu obshcheniyu. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki, Tambov, 2013, no. 7(1), рр. 58-63.

2014/1
Methodology of separate on-site geophysical monitoring of jointly operated oil reservoirs
Petroleum geology, geophysics

Authors: Sergey I. MELNIKOV was born in 1989. He is graduate student of the Department of Geophysical Information Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. His interests of research include hydrodynamic and down hole well logging, information technology in the field of control of field development. He is author of 13 publications. E-mail: s_melnikov@bk.ru

Abstract: This article analyzes the information capacity of hydrodynamic and on-site monitoring of wells drilled for combined development of multi zone oil reservoirs. A numerical model was used to evaluate the reliability and limits of applicability of standard methods of determining separately the reservoir parameters (based on the measurement of zone rates of production). The approximate formulas for the calculation of the individual characteristics of zones based on a priori information about the relationship of skin factors or permeabilities are obtained. A new method for assessing skin factors for the conditions of tapping up at least one operating zone by hydraulic fracturing (HF) is proposed. The method is based on the analysis of the change rate history of the zones production rates immediately after turning the well into production. The proposed methods have been tested using the results of surveys of the pumping wells of «Gazprom Neft» JSC.

Index UDK: 552.52

Keywords: hydrodynamic monitoring, on-site geophysical monitoring, multi zone wells, individual characteristic of zone parametres

Bibliography:
1. Ipatov A.I., Nuriev M.F., Belous V.B. Informacionnaja sistema monitoringa razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij na baze stacionarnyh kontrol’no-izmeritel’nyh modulej. Neftjanoe hoziajstvo, 2009, no. 10, pp. 39-42.
2.
Baryshnikov A.V., Sidorenko V.V., Kremeneckij M.I. Rezul’tativnost’ dolgovremennogo monitoringa sovmestnoj razrabotki plastov sistemami odnovremenno-razdel’noj dobychi na Priobskom mestorozhdenii. Neftjanoe hoziajstvo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 30-33.
3.
Kremeneckij M.I., Ipatov A.I., Guljaev D.N. Informacionnoe obespechenie I tehnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovanija neftjanyh I gazovyh zalezhej. Izhevsk: Institut komp’juternyh issledovanij, 2012, 896 p.

2014/1
Features of heavy concrete in the Arctic
Drilling and development of hydrocarbon fields

Authors: Vladlen O. ALMAZOV graduated from Kuibyshev Moscow Institute of Civil Engineering in 1956. He is full professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor of the Department of Concrete Structures of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. He specializes in the field of engineering structures, including offshore oil and gas facilities. He is author of more than 130 publications. E-mail: v_almazov33@mail.ru
Zakir Allahveran-ogly AMIRASLANOV graduated from Azerbaijan Institute of Civil Engineering in Baku in 1984. He is PhD, leading researcher “Morneft” SPC. He specializes in research and design of structures for offshore oil and gas facilities. He is author of 26 publications. E-mail: trudyrgung@gubkin.ru

Abstract: Operation of concrete composite structures and hydraulic structures in the arctic conditions has specific features. The type of frost resistant concrete is of particular significance in the harsh climatic conditions. Durability of concrete in the arctic conditions depends on the annual number of cycles of freezing and thawing. This paper proposes a new approach to the choice of the properties of concrete structures designed for operating in harsh environments. This is based on statistical processing of the temperature variations and can greatly simplify the procedure for determining the safety factors for strength and deformability.

Index UDK: 693.5

Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, cement type, cycles of freezing and thawing, strength

Bibliography:
1. SP 41.13330.2012: Concrete and reinforced concrete design of hydraulic structures. M., 2012, 70 р.
2. SP 28.13330.2012: Protection of structures from corrosion. M., 2012, p. 118.
3. SP 131.13330. Building Climatology. M., 2012, р. 113.
4. EN 1992-1-1: Design of concrete structures — Part 1-1 General rules and rules of buildings. CEN 2003, 193 p.