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2015/1
Study of impact of various cellulosic feedstock pretreatment techniques on degree of cellulose crystallinity
Chemical sciences

Authors: Artem A. LITVIN graduated from Astrakhan State Technical University in 2013 as a BSc with a specialty of “Chemical engineering and biotechnology”. Currently he is working on Master thesis at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is also an engineer of the department of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry. The area of scientific interests includes synthesis of ionic liquids and application of ionic liquids for desulphurization of hydrocarbon fuels, pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for further obtaining of high-energy products. He is an author of 10 scientific publications. E-mail: artemich92@mail.ru
Iakov A. MASIUTIN graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2012 as a MSc in Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. Currently he is a PhD student at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, engineer of the department of Physical and Colloid Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is a specialist in the field of technologies of biofuels production, synthesis of ionic liquids, application of spectroscopic methods for analysis of petroleum and petroleum products. He is an author of more than 30 scientific publications. E-mail: YMA1989@mail.ru
Andrei A. NOVIKOV graduated from Perm State University in 2007 as a MSc in chemistry. He completed his postgraduate studies at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2010. He is a PhD in chemistry, head of the Center for Nanodiagnostics at Gubkin Russian State University. Andrei Novikov is a specialist in the fields of organic chemistry, microbiology, and nanodiagnostics. He is an author of more than 40 scientific publications. E-mail: gubkin.biotech@gmail.com
Vladimir A. VINOKUROV graduated from Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas industry in the specialty of “Technical engineer”, in 1975 he completed his postgraduate studies ibidem. He is a doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, head of the department of Physical and Colloid Chemistry at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Vladimir Vinokurov is a prominent specialist in the field of surface chemistry and disperse systems chemistry, synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles and biotechnology. He is an author of over 200 scientific publications. E-mail: vinok_ac@mail.ru

Abstract: The impact of various pretreatment techniques of cellulosic feedstock (microcrystalline cellulose Avicel, pine sawdust) on the degree of cellulose crystallinity was studied. By means of powder diffractionit was established that the highest impact on lowering of the cellulose crystallinity degree was achieved through pretreatment by the mixture of ionic liquidsand by preliminary γ-irradiation with the dose of absorbance of 100 kGy. The substrates obtained through pretreatment could further be subjected to hydrolysis to glucose, which in turn is a source of ethanol, butanol-1, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and some other compounds that could be used as high-energy additives to conventional hydrocarbon fuels

Index UDK: 663.534 + 577.3 + 544.478.42 + 661.728.7

Keywords: cellulose, crystallinity, irradiation pretreatment, ionic liquids, oxidative pretreatment, hydrolysis, powder diffraction

Bibliography:
1. Lynd L.R., Weimer P.J., van Zyl W.H., Pretorius I.S. Microbial cellulose utilization: Fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 2002, vol. 66, issue 3, p. 506–577.
2. Mansfield S.D., Mooney C., Saddler J.N. Substrates and enzyme characteristics that limit cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Prog., 1999, vol.15, issue 5, p. 804–816.
3. Andersson S., Serimaa R., Paakkari T., Saranpää P., Pesonen E. Crystallinity of wood and the size of cellulose crystallites in Norway spruce (Picea abies). The Japan Wood Research Society, 2003, p. 807–811.
4. Zhao H., Kwak J.H., Wang Y., Franz J.A., White J.M., Holladay J.E. Effects of Crystallinity on Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Cellulose by Cellulose Ball-Milling Study. Energy & Fuels, 2006, vol. 20, p. 807–811.
5. Aleshina L.A., Glazkova S.V., Lugovskaya L.A., Podoynikova M.V., Fofanov A.D., Sili- na E.V. Contemporary notions on structures of celluloses. Khimiya rastitelnogo syrya [Chemistry of plant feedstock], 2001, no. 1, p. 5–36 (in Russian).
6. Xiang Q., Lee Y.Y., Pettersson P.O., Torget R.W. Heterogeneous aspects of acid hydrolysis of α-cellulose. Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. — Humana press, 2003, pp. 505–514.
7. Heinze T., Schwikal K., Barthel S. Ionic liquids as reaction medium in cellulose functionalization. Macromol. Biosci., 2005, vol. 5, p. 520–525.
8. Yang C. et al. Effect and aftereffect of γ radiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. Bioresource technology, 2008, vol. 99, issue 14, p. 6240–6245.
9. Masiutin Ia.A., Golyshkin A.V., Litvin A.A., Novikov A.A., Vinokurov V.A. Pretreatment of cellulosic substrates by acetate- and chloride-based ionic liquids and their mixtures. APCBEE Procedia (2014 5th International Conference on Biology, Environment and Chemistry (ICBEC 2014), 29— 30 October 2014, San Diego, USA), vol. 11, p. 48–53. ISSN: 2212–6708.
10. Lesin V.I., Pisarenko L.M., Kasaikina O.T. Colloid catalysts based on iron (III) oxide. 1. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition. Kolloidnyy zhurnal [Colloid journal], 2012, vol. 74, no. 1, p. 90–95 (in Russian).
11. Kasaikina O.T., Pisarenko L.M., Lesin V.I. Colloid catalysts based on iron (III) oxide. 2. Features of catalytic oxidation of palm oil. Kolloidnyy zhurnal [Colloid journal], 2012, vol. 74, no. 4, p. 503–508 (in Russian).
12. Berberov A.B., Masyutin YА.A., Afonin D.S., Borzaev H.H. Application of the colloid catalyst based on iron (III) oxide and polymetallic nanocatalyst (Fe-Co-Ni) for modification of lignocellulose structure. Izvestiya Kabardino-Balkarskogo nauchnogo centra RAN [Proceedings of Kabardino-Balkar Scientific Center of RAS], 2013, vol. 1, no. 6 (56), p. 72–78 (in Russian).

2015/1
Catalytic synthesis of carboxylic acids by carbonylation of olefins and alcohols in ionic liquid media
Chemical sciences

Authors: Oleg L. ELISEEV (b. 1967) graduated from the Gubkin State University in 1991, post-graduate courses in 1994. Senior researcher in Zelinsky Institute of organic chemistry, docent at Gubkin State University. Author of 50 publications in the field of organic chemistry, catalysis, petrochemistry. E-mail: oleg@server.ioc.ac.ru
Al’bert L. LAPIDUS (b. 1933) graduated from the Moscow Institute of Fine Chemical technology in 1957, post-graduate courses in 1963. Doctor of sciences, professor, correspondent member of RAS, Head of Chair in Gubkin State University since 1999. Author of more 600 publications in the field of catalysis, petrochemistry, coal chemistry. E-mail: albert@server.ioc.ac.ru

Abstract: Catalytic carbonylation of ethylene, higher olefins and alcohols produces carboxylic acid. We have shown that a comfortable media for these reactions are ionic liquids. Their advantage over standard solvents is the ability to dissolve the palladium catalyst not containing organophosphine ligands. This achieves a substantial simplification and cost reduction of the catalyst system. Also shown is that after extraction of the reaction products, the catalyst remains dissolved in the ionic liquid and can be used repeatedly without loss of activity. Ключевые слова: гомогенный катализ, монооксид углерода, карбонилирование, олефины, спирты, карбоновые кислоты, палладий

Index UDK: 546.262.3:542.971.2

Keywords: homogeneous catalysis, carbon monoxide, carbonylation, olefins, alcohols, carboxylic acids, palladium

Bibliography:
1. Lapidus A.L., Pirozhkov S.D. Catalytic synthesis of organic compounds by carbonyla- tion of unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols. Uspekhi Khimii, 1989, v. 58, no. 2, p. 197–233 (in Russian).
2. Gordon C.M. New developments in catalysis using ionic liquids. Applied Catalysis A: General, 2001, v. 222, p. 101–117.
3.
Olivier-Bourbigou H., Magna L. Ionic liquids: perspectives for organic and catalytic reactions. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chem, 2002, v. 182–183, p. 419–437.
4.
Wasserscheid pp., Welton T. (Eds.) Ionic Liquids in Synthesis. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2002, 355 p.
5. Welton T. Ionic liquids in catalysis. Coord. Chem. Rev, 2004, v. 248, p. 2459–2477.
6.
Zhang Z.C. Catalysis in Ionic Liquids. Adv. Catal, 2006, v. 49, p. 153–237.
7.
Liu S., Xiao J. Toward green catalytic synthesis — Transition metal-catalyzed reactions in non-conventional media. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chemical, 2007, v. 270, p. 1–43.
8.
Ranke J., Stolte S., Stormann R., Arning J., Jastorff B. Design of Sustainable Chemical ProductssThe Example of Ionic Liquids. Chem. Rev., 2007, v. 107, p. 2183–2206.
9.
Lapidus A.L., Eliseev O.L., Stepin N.N., Bondarenko T.N. Carboxylation of styrene in the N(C4H9)4Br — heptane system. Russ. Chem. Bull., 2004, no. 11, p. 2564–2567.
10.
Eliseev O.L., Stepin N.N., Bondarenko T.N., Lapidus A.L. Phosphine-Free Catalytic System for the Carboxylation of Olefins with Carbon Oxide. Doklady Chemistry, 2005, v. 401, part 2, p. 59–61.
11.
Lapidus A., Eliseev O., Bondarenko T., Stepin N. Palladium catalysed hydroxycarbonylation of 1-phenylethanol in molten salt media. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chemical, 2006, v. 252, p. 245–251.
12.
Zim D., de Souza R.F., Dupont J., Monteiro A.L. Regioselective synthesis of 2-arylpropionic esters by palladium-catalyzed hydroesterification of styrene derivatives in molten salt media. Tetrahedron Lett, 1998, v. 39, pp. 7071–7074.
13.
Jang E.J., Lee K.H., Lee J.S., Kim Y.G. Regioselective synthesis of ibuprofen via the palladium complex catalyzed hydrocarboxylation of 1-(4-isobutylphenyl) ethanol. J. Mol. Catal. A: Chemical, 1999, v. 138, pp. 25–36.
14.
Parshall G.W., Ittel S.D. Homogeneous Catalysis., 2nd Edition. Wiley, New York, 1992, p. 100.
15. Lapidus A.L., Eliseev O.L., Bondarenko T.N., Chau N.H. Hydroxy- and Alkoxycarbonylation of Ethylene in Molten Salt Medium. DGMK/SCI-Conference “Production and Use of Light Olefins”. September 28–30, 2009. Dresden, Germany. Proceedings, p. 225–231.
16.
Eliseev O.L., Bondarenko T.N., Stepin N.N., Lapidus A.L. Carbonylation of alcohols in the Pd(OAc)2/TsOH/molten salt system. Mendeleev Commun, 2006, v. 16, p. 107–109.
17.
Lapidus A.L., Eliseev O.L., Bondarenko T.N., Chau N.H. Hydroxycarbonylation of benzylic derivatives in ionic liquid media. DGMK/SCI-Conference “Future Feedstocks for Fuels and Chemicals”. September 29 — October 1, 2008. Berlin, Germany. Proceedings, p. 249–256.

2014/4
Environmental problems of development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic
Geosciences

Authors:

Viktor P. GAVRILOV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1958. Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Geology Department in Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Author of over 350 scientific works including, 12 monographs and 7 textbooks. E-mail:rgung@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The article considers the potential environmental impacts of developing hydro-carbon resources in the Arctic. The expediency of phased progress in this region as well as the need for a unified State program for the Arctic development, which would include permanent comprehensive monitoring of the environment is substantiated

Index UDK: 622.323

Keywords: Arctic, ecology, oil, gas

Bibliography:
1. Belonin M.D., Grigorenko Yu.N. Raznorangovye neftegazogeologicheskie elementy arkticheskoi kontinentalnoi okrainy (resursno-geologicheskii analiz) i puti osvoeniya morskih uglevodorodov. Neft, gaz Arktiki. M.: Izd-vo RGU nefti i gaza im. I.M. Gubkina, 2007.
2. Bogoyavlenskii V.I., Polyakova I.D., Budagova T.A. i dr. Geologo-geofizicheskie issledovaniya neftegazonosnosti akvatorii Cirkumarkticheskogo segmenta Zemli. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 6.
3. Varlamov A.I., Kalininskii V.D., Afanasenkov A.P. i dr. Sostoyanie resursnoi bazy i problemy osvoeniya kontinentalnogo shelfa Rossiiskoi Federacii. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2011, no. 6.
4. Gavrilov V.P. Poyasa neftegazonakopleniya Arktiki, perspektivy ih osvoeniya. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2013, no. 1.
5. Dodin D.A., Kalininskii V.D., Suprunenko O.I., Pavlenko V.I. Uzlovye problemy obespecheniya ekonomi4eskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Arktiki. Arktika: ekologiya i ekonomika, 2011, no. 4.
6. Ivanov G.I. Istochniki i urovni koncentracii neftegazovogo zagryazneniya zapadno-arkticheskogo shelfa. Neft, gaz Arktiki. M.: Izd-vo RGU nefti i gaza im. I.M. Gubkina, 2007.
7. Kletshev K.A., Wein V.S. Geodinamicheskaya evolyuciya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti Arktiki. M.: Izd-vo VNIGNI, 2008.
8. Popov A.P., Pleskovskih I.A., Varlamov A.I. i dr. Sostoyanie syrevoi bazy nefti i gaza Rossiiskoi Federacii. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 5.
9. Suprunenko O.I., Suslova V.V., Medvedeva T.YU. Sostoyanie izucheniya i osvoeniya neftegazovyh resursov arkticheskogo shelfa Rossii. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 5.

2014/4
Technique of definition of change of coefficients of filtrational resistance of horizontal wells at increase in length of a horizontal site of a trunk in the course of development
Geosciences

Authors: Zagid S. ALIEV (born 1935) graduated from Azibekov Azerbaijani industrial Institute in 1957. Dr. Professor of Gas and condensate field development and operation department. Is the head and the executive of projects of development of oil and gas fields of Russia, Iran, Iraq, Vietnam, Kazakhstan, Algeria, Germany, etc., and also the author of normative documents of JSC Gazprom — instructions, the managements, standards of the enterprises. Author of 365 publications, including 35 monographs and 30 thematic brochures. E-mail: rgkm@gubkin.ru
Elena M. KOTLYAROVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1988. Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor of Gas and condensate field development and operation department. The expert in the field of development and operation of gas and gas-condensate fields and UGS. The author more than 30 publications, including 1 monograph.E-mail: kotlyarova_gubkin@mail.ru
Denis A. MARAKOV Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor of deve-lopment and operation of gas and gas-condensate fields. The expert in the field of development and operation of oil and gas fields. The author more than 30 publications, including 7 monographs and 5 thematic brochures in the field of the theory of development, research and operation of vertical and horizontal wells.E-mail: marakovdenis@rambler.ru

Abstract: For increase in the period of continuous annual gas production from fields the number of vertical wells increases. At application of horizontal wells continuous annual selection in the course of development can be provided by increase only in length of a horizontal site that significantly increases profitability of develop-ment of a deposit. Results of influence of increase in length of a horizontal site by coefficients of filtrational resistance which are necessary for forecasting of an output are presented. The importance of work consists in the offer of a method of calculation of sizes of these coefficients in process of increase in length of a horizontal hole

Index UDK: 551

Keywords: horizontal well, relative output of a well, current length of a horizontal site, completeness of opening of a fragment, coefficients of filtrational resistance, output of horizontal wells, strip fragment of a deposit, drainage zone

Bibliography:
1. Aliev Z.S., etc. Determination of necessary length of a horizontal trunk of a gas well in the course of development. Gas industry, 2005, no. 12, pp. 45-47.
2. Aliev Z.S., Bondarenko V.V. Tekhnologiya of application of horizontal wells: Manual. M.: Oil and gas, 2006, 712 p.
3. Aliev Z.S., etc. An approximate method of search of the optimum sizes of a squared fragment and its opening for providing the maximum output of a horizontal well. Drilling and oil, 2007, no. 2, pp. 17-19.
4. Aliev Z.S., Sheremet V.V. Determination of productivity of the horizontal wells which opened gas and gas-oil layers. M.: Nedra, 1995, 131 p.
5. Aliev Z.S., etc. Determination of key parameters of horizontal gas wells. M.: Prod. RGU center of oil and gas of name I.M. Gubkina, 2012.
6. Gritsenko A.I., Aliev Z.S. Rukovodstvo on research of wells. M.: Nauka, 1995, 523 p.
7. Aliev Z.S., Bondarenko of V.V. Rukovodstvo on design of development of gas and gas-oil fields. Pechora: Pechora time, 2002, 894 p.

2014/4
Results of integrated assessment of actual and calculated oil recovery factor for fields developed with the use of waterflooding
Geosciences

Authors: Larisa N. NAZAROVA graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1979. She is Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Development and Exploitation of Oil fields of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is specialist in the field of development and design of oil fields. She is author of more than 50 scientific publications.E-mail: Nazarova-ln@irmu.ru

Abstract: Water permeability of the reservoir with different ratios of the parameters of absolute permeability, effective saturated thickness and viscosity of reservoir oil is one of the most important characteristics of the layer and significantly effects the calculated ORF. However, in practice, the actual values of the ORF can reach those both below and above the calculated value. Assessment of the actual ORF values obtained for the layers with different permeability and porositycan serve as a basis for realistic ORF for new deposits.

Index UDK: 622.276

Keywords: oil recovery factor (ORF), water permeability, filtration-capacitive properties (FCP)

Bibliography:
1. Amelin I.D. Vliyanie prirodnykh i tekhnologicheskikh faktorov na pokazateli razrabotki zalezhey nefti v karbonatnykh kollektorakh (po dannym opyta ikh ekspluatatsii). Materialy soveshchaniya. M.: VNIIOENG, 1990, p. 117 (in Russian).
2.Baziv V.F. Nefteotdacha v printsipe ne mozhet padat’. Nedropol’zovanie — ХХI vek, 2007, no. 1 (in Russian).
3.Baziv V.F. Jekspertno-analiticheskaja ocenka jeffektivnosti sistem razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij s zavodneniem. M.: VNIIOЕNG, 2007, р. 396 (in Russian).
4.Baishev B.T. O zadachakh, printsipakh i metodakh regulirovaniya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy pri rezhime vytesneniya nefti vodoy. M.: Nauka, 1976, p. 243 (in Russian).
5.Baturin Yu.E. Slovo o KINe (koeffitsient izvlecheniya nefti). Burenie i neft’, 2011, no. 2 (in Russian).
6.Vasil’ev I.P., Gavura V.E., Leshhenko V.E., Semin V.I. Obobshhenie opyta i puti dal’nejshego povyshenija jeffektivnosti razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij. M.: VNIIOЕNG, 1988, р. 58 (in Russian).
7.Gavura A.V. Statisticheskaya model’ dlya otsenki nefteotdachi karbonatnykh plastov prizavodnenii. Effektivnost’ razlichnykh sistem zavodneniya neftyanykh plastov na mestorozhdeniyakh Kuybyshevskoy i Orenburgskoy oblastey. Tr. Giprovostoknefti. Kuybyshev, 1981, p. 64-73 (in Russian).
8.Gavura V.E. Kontrol’ i regulirovanie protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. M.: VNIIOENG, 2001, p. 340 (in Russian).
9.Davydov A.V. Analiz i prognoz razrabotki neftjanyh zalezhej. M.: VNIIOЕNG, 2008, р. 316 (in Russian).
10. Dijashev R.N., Blinov A.F. Sravnitel’nyj analiz pokazatelej razrabotki plastov devonskihotlozhenij s uchetom geologo-fizicheskih svojstv ob’ektov i dinamiki otbora produkcii. M.: NP NAЕN, 2008, р. 356 (in Russian).
11. Zhdanov S.A., Krjanev D.Ju. Povyshenie nefteotdachi na pozdnej stadii razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij. Sbornik dokladov. M.: NP NAЕN, 2008, р. 356 (in Russian).
12. Zhdanov S.A., Maljutina G.S. Vlijanie razbalansirovki sistemy razrabotki na polnotu vyrabotki zapasov. Trudy
5-go Mezhdunarodnogo tehnologicheskogo simpoziuma, INB, 2006, р. 150 (in Russian).
13. Kac R. Opredelenie ostatochnyh izvlekaemyh zapasov v obvodnennyh zonah. SPE-138081.
14. Krjanev D.J, Zhdanov S.A. Metody uvelichenija nefteotdachi: opyt i perspektivy primenenija. Neftegazovaja vertikal’, 2011, no. 5 (in Russian).
15. Lisovskij N.N., Ivanova M.M., Baziv V.F., Maljugin V.A. Sovershenstvovanie razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij v zavershajushhej stadii. Metody povyshenija jeffektivnosti razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij v zavershajushhej (chetvertoj) stadii. Sbornik dokladov. M.: NP NAEN, 2008, p. 356 (in Russian).
16. Lysenko V.D. O vozmozhnyh rezervah znachitel’nogo uvelichenija dobychi nefti. VII Mezhdunarodnyj tehnologicheskij simpozium «Novye tehnologii osvoenija i razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemyh zapasov nefti i gaza i povyshenija neftegazootdachi». M., 2008 (in Russian).
17. Muslimov R.H. Metody povyshenija jeffektivnosti razrabotki neftjanyh mestorozhdenij v pozdnej stadii. Sbornik dokladov. M.: NP NAEN, 2008, p. 356 (in Russian).
18. Nemkov A.S., Kovalev V.S., Sazonov B.F., Berlin G.D. Vlijanie geologo-fizicheskih parametrov na jeffektivnost’ razrabotki neftjanyh zalezhej v karbonatnyh kollektorah. Sb. nauchnyh trudov. M., 2000, v.122 (in Russian).
19. Roshhektaev A., Jakasov A. Jekspress metod ocenki celevogo KIN na osnove statisticheskih harakteristik kollektora. SPE-136139.
20. Rudenko M.N., Pis’mennikov D.N. Tehniko-jekonomicheskoe obosnovanie kojefficienta izvlechenija nefti (TJeO KIN) kak osnova ocenki investicionnoj privlekatel’nosti neftjanoj otrasli. Rossijskoe predprinimatel’stvo, 2012, no. 7 (in Russian).
21.Tolstolytkin I.P. Problemy i perspektivy razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemyh zapasov nefti Hanty-Mansijskogo Avtonomnogo Okruga-Jugry. VII Mezhdunarodnyj tehnologicheskij simpozium «Novye tehnologii osvoenija i razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemyh zapasov nefti i gaza i povyshenija neftegazootdachi». M., 2008 (in Russian).
22. Halimov Je.M., Halimov K.Je. Faktory i uslovija dostizhenija vysokoj nefteotdachi. M.: NP NAEN, 2008, p. 356 (in Russian).

2014/4
Forced vibrations of gas in gathering dead leg of compressor station
Geosciences

Authors: Nikolay A. VEKLICH graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University majoring in of „Mechanic”. Associate professor of the higher mathematics of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. The author of 45 scientific publications.E-mail: vna4985@yandex.ru
Victor N. ZHERMOLENKO graduated from MSU majoring in of „Mechanic”. Professor of department of the higher mathematics of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. The author of 60 scientific publications.E-mail: zhermol@yandex.ru

Abstract: Operating experience of powerful centrifugal superchargers of compressor sta-tions (CS) testifies that the CS pipelines can vibrate very intensively. One of the sources of vibrations which can reach the emergency level can be the compelled vibrations of a column of gas in the dead legs of the CS pipeline [1, 2]. The ad vancing wave of compressed gas in the dead leg of the CS pipeline is presented as a linear problem with restrictions imposed on the flow and pressure at the base of the dead leg. Estimated expressions for the force with which gas can affect the dead leg cap (bottom) are received. The conditions of rapid resonant growth of this force in time are defined. The possibility of changing the gas flow under systematic strong pressure drops at the base of the dead leg into periodic vibrations of the compressed gas is considered. The results of the work can be taken into account for fatigue calculations of welded seams in the point of welding of the dead leg to the gathering pipeline.

Index UDK: 532.552:532.527

Keywords: gathering pipeline, dead leg branch, pressure vibrations, resonance

Bibliography:
1. Ponomarenko Ju.B. Rezonansnye kolebanija gaza v sosednih kollektornyh tupikah. Sb. “Gazovoj otrasli — vysokojeffektivnoe oborudovanie”, RAO Gazprom, VNIIGAZ. M., 1995, pp. 36-39.
2. Vishnjakov V.A., Zaseckij V.G., Karavosov R.K., Prozorov A.G., Sokolinskij L.I. Vozbuzhdenie intensivnyh pul’sacij davlenija pri povorote potoka v trakte s tupikovoj polost’ju. Izv. RAN. MZhG, 1998, no. 2, pp. 104-111.
3. Chernyj G.G. Gazovaja dinamika. Ch. I. Osnovnye ponjatija gazovoj dinamiki I element prikladnoj gazovoj dinamiki. Uchebnoe posobie. Izd-vo MGU, 1984, p. 112.
4. Grinberg G.A. Novyj metod reshenija nekotoryh kraevyh zadach dlja uravnenij matematicheskoj fiziki, dopuskajushih razdelenie peremennyh. Izv. AN SSSR. Ser. fizicheskaja, 1946, t. 10, no. 2, pp. 141-168.
5. Veklich N.A. Udar cilindra iz ideal’noj szhimaemoj zhidkosti o pregradu. Sibirskij fiziko-tehnicheskij zhurnal, 1991, vyp. 6, pp. 34-41.

2014/4
Prospective technology of the pipeline construction on the low-bearing grounds
Geosciences

Authors: Yuri A. GORYAINOV was born in 1947. In 1970 he graduated from the Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry. Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor of the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines and Storage Facilities. He is author of more than 42 scientific papers.E-mail: srgnp@gubkin.ru
Oksana Y. VOLODCHENKOVA graduated from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1989. Associate Professor, PhD of the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines and Storage Facilities. She is author of 14 scientific publications.E-mail: srgnp@gubkin.ru
Asya A. SHAMUKAEVA graduated the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines in the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2013. Postgraduate student. She is author of 2 scientific publications.E-mail: shamukaevaa@mail.ru
Igor A. LEONOVICH graduated the Pipeline Transportation Department of the Polotsk State University in 2013. Postgraduate student of the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines in the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is author of 2 scientific publications.E-mail:ned.flander@mail.ru

Abstract: Operation of oil and gas fields in the northern and eastern regions of the Russian Federation requires the construction and exploitation of pipelines on weak soils. Presently, there are no general guidelines, or best practices to formalize or classify the existing technical solutions. This article discusses the current technical solutions of laying pipes on weak soils for all methods of pipeline construction. The issues of the application of these solutions on the weak soils of major oil and gas fields are analyzed. The possibility of using soil modules as a base for laying pipelines on the weak soils is discussed

Index UDK: 624.13

Keywords: pipelines, methods of pipeline laying, weak soils

Bibliography:
1. Vasiliev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Gaynulin E.N. Prokladka truboprovodov na mnogoletne-merzlyh gruntah s ispol’zovaniem gruntovyh module. Nauka i tehnologii truboporovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 3, pр. 12–17.
2.VSN
51-3-85. Proektirovanie promyslovyh stroitel’nyh truboprovodov.
3.SP 14.13330.2011. Stroitel’stvo v sejsmicheskih rajonah. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP II-7-81*.
4.SP 22.13330.2011. Osnovanija zdanij i sooruzhenij. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 2.02.01-83*.
5.SP 24.13330.2011. Svajnye fundamenty. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 2.02.03-85*.
6.SP 28.13330.2012. Zashhita stroitel’nyh konstrukcij ot korrozii. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 2.03.11-85*.
7.SP 47.13330.2012. Inzhenernye izyskanija dlja stroitel’stva. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 11-02-96*.
8.SP 48.13330.2012. Organizacija stroitel’stva. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 12-01-2004*.
9.SP 126.13330.2012. Geodezicheskie raboty v stroitel’stve. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 3.01.03-84*.
10.SP 86.13330.2012. Magistral’nye truboprovody. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP III-42-80.
11.SP 36.13330.2012. Magistral’nye truboprovody.
12.SNiP II-7-81*. Stroitel’stvo v sejsmicheskih rajonah. (S izmenenijami i dopolnenijami).
13.STO Gazprom 2-2.2-263-2008. Normy proektirovanija remonta magistral’nyh gazoprovodov v uslovijah zabolochennoj i obvodnennoj mestnosti.
14.Pat. № 2246657. RU. Opora nadzemnogo truboprovoda. Abovskij N.P., Majstrenko G.F., Fedorenko L.D., Abovskaja S.N., Sapkalov V.I. opubl. 2005, BI no. 5.
15.Pat. № 41829. RU. Reguliruemaja opora nadzemnogo truboprovoda dlja stroitel’stva v slozhnyh gruntovyh uslovijah. Abovskij N.P., Majstrenko G.F., Sapkalov V.I., Matjushenko V.A., opubl. 2004, BI no. 31.
16.EN 1997-1 (2004) (English): Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design — Part 1: General rules [Authority: The European Union Per Regulation 305/2011, Directive 98/34/EC, Directive 2004/18/EC.
17.Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. Landscaping on expansive soil. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension Bulletin 7.236.
18.Abovskij N.P. Stroitel’stvo v severnyh neftegazonosnyh rajonah krasnojarskogo kraja. Krasnojarsk: KrasGASA, 2005, 228 p.
19.Alaska pipeline project draft resource. Report 7 soil resources USAG-UR-SGREG-000010. December 2011 Revision 0 FERC Docket No. PF09-11-000 URL: http://www.arcticgas.gov/sites/ default/files/documents/app-draft-resource-report-7.pdf
20. John P. Zarling, Paul Hansen and Louis Kozisek. Design and performance experience of foundations stabilized with thermosyphons/University of Alaska Fairbanks. Fairbanks, Alaska USA 997750660. URL: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC5-365.pdf
21.TU 102-588-91. Tehnicheskie uslovija. Kontejner tekstil’nyj dlja ballastirovki gruntom truboprovodov diametrom 1020–1420 mm.
22.TU 8397-019-01297858-2006. Tehnicheskie uslovija. Skal’nyj list dlja zashhity izolirovannoj poverhnosti truboprovodov.
23.TU 2297-006-01297858-2004. Tehnicheskie uslovija. Polimerno-kontejnernoe ballastirujushhee ustrojstvo (PKBU).
24.SP 104-34-96. Svod pravil po sooruzheniju linejnoj chasti gazoprovodov proizvodstvo zemljanyh rabot.
25.VSN 004-88. Stroitel’stvo magistral’nyh truboprovodov. Tehnologija i organizacija.
26.SP 11-105-97. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie izyskanija dlja stroitel’stva ch. I; ch. II; ch. III.
27.SNiP 11-02-96. Inzhenernye izyskanija dlja stroitel’stva. Osnovnye polozhenija.

2014/4
Application of new technologies and equipment for control of storage tanks construction
Geosciences

Authors: Sergei I. SENTSOV was born in 1955. In 1978 he graduated from the Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry. Professor of the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines and Storage Facilities, PhD. Published 45 scientific monographs, articles and tutorials.E-mail:rgung@gubkin.ru
Farit G. TUKHBATULLIN was born in 1950. In 1972 he graduated from the Ufa State Petroleum Technological University. Professor of the Department of Oil and Gas supply, PhD. Published 127 scientific monographs, articles and tutorials.E-mail:rgung@gubkin.ru
Boris S. LANGE was born in 1940. In 1963 he graduated from the Siberian Transport University. Published more than 18 scientific articles and tutorials. General director of LLC "Spetsneftegaz-T".E-mail:rgung@gubkin.ru
Anton P. SALNIKOV graduated from the Pipeline Transportation Department of the Polotsk State University in 2013. Postgraduate student of the Department of Construction and Maintenance of Gas and Oil Pipelines in the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail:rgung@gubkin.ru

Abstract: Oil tanks are extremely hazardous industrial facilities, with accidents leading to significant damage. The safety of a tank is to a great extent formedat the con-struction stage. However, to date, construction control focuses on defects requiring immediate repair, while subcritical defects either cannot be detected or are not taken into account. This study proposes a new concept of construction control with a systematic approach to assessing the quality of the construction of oil tanks, in order to predict the possible development of the identified sub-critical defects under certain operating loads. The concept proposed by the authors looks upon the construction control as a step of forming the initial estimate of the extent of further degradation of the object under the influence of actual operating loads

Index UDK: 69.058

Keywords: construction control, three-dimensional laser scanning, storage tanks

Bibliography:
1. TD 23.115-96 Tehnologija geodezicheskogo obsledovanija stal’nyh vertikal’nyh rezervuarov.
2. ASTM E2807 — 11. “Standard Specification for 3D Imaging Data Exchange”.
3. Kondrasheva O.G., Nazarov M.N. Prichinno-sledstvennyj analiz avarij vertikal’nyh stal’nyh rezervuarov. Neftegazovoe delo, 2004, no. 2, pp. 36-43.
4. Lange B.S. Razrabotka metodologii kompleksnoj ocenki kachestva magistral’nyh trubopro-vodov v processe stroitel’nogo kontrolja: Dis. kand. tekhn. nauk. M., 2012.
5. Vasiliev G.G., Lezhnev M.A., Salnikov A.P., Leonovich I.A., Katanov A.A., Lihovtsev M.V. O primenenii nazemnogo lazernogo skanirovanija v neftegazovoj otrasli. Nauka i tehnologija truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 4 (16), pp. 47-51.
6. Seredovich V.A., Komissarov A.V., Shirokova D.V. Nazemnoe lazernoe skanirovanie: mono-grafija. Novosibirsk: SGGA, 2009, 261 p.
7. OR-91.200.00-KTN-226-10. Porjadok organizacii i osushhestvlenija stroitel’nogo kontrolja (TN) na ob’ektah stroitel’stva AKTN.
8. Mazur I.I., Shapiro V.D. Upravlenie kachestvom. M.: Omega-L, 2002.

2014/4
Polymer coatings as promising materials to improve efficiency, durability, safety and workability of parts of oil and gas equipment and facilities. Problems and solutions.
Technical sciences

Authors: Viktor N. PROTASOV — mastermind of the laboratory of designing and testing polymeric coatings of oil and gas equipment and structures Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail:trudyrgung@gubkin.ru

Abstract: Polymer coatings are promising material to control the quality of the surfaces of equipment and facilities of oil and gas industry. Their efficiency highly depends on their proper use. The technical requirements to polymer coatings of various kinds in the existing national and foreign regulations are replaced with the characteristics of coatings of specific materials guaranteed by manufacturers. This leads to improper use of the coatings. Therefore formulating the performance characteristics of polymer coatings for the surfaces to be insulated is of great importance. Relevant shortcomings of national and international technical requirements to polymer coatings for oil and gas equipment and structures are considered. One of the reasons for these is considered to be the incompetence of specialists. A method of formulating the technical requirements for specific coatings is proposed. This may be used as a basis for developing regulations

Index UDK: 620.19

Keywords: polymer coatings, oil and gas equipment, technical requirements, improper use, method for developing technical requirements

Bibliography:
1. Protasov V.N. Kachestvo mashinostroitel’noj produkcii na razlichnyh stadijah ee zhiznennogo cikla. M.: Izdatel’skij dom Nedra, 2012, 231 р. (In Russian).
2. Bazrov B.M., Kaminskij Ja.A., Averbuh B.A. Tehnologija gazoneftjanogo i neftehimicheskogo mashinostroenija. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1986, 384 р. (In Russian).
3. Barashkin B.S. Teorija i praktika tehnologii mashinostroenija. M: Mashinostroenie, 1982, 367 р. (In Russian).
4. Protasov V.N., Sultanov B.Z., Krivenkov S.V. Jekspluatacija oborudovanija dlja burenija skvazhin i neftegazodobychi. M: Nedra, 2004, 692 р. (In Russian).
5. Buhalenko E.I., Abdulaev Ju. G. Montazh, obsluzhivanie i remont neftepromyslovogo oborudovanija. M: Nedra, 1985, 391 р. (In Russian).
6. Abdulaev Ju.G., Veliev T.K., Dzhafarov Sh.T. Montazh, jekspluatacija i remont oborudovanija fontannyh i nagnetatel’nyh skvazhin. M: Nedra, 1989, 246 р. (In Russian).
7. Protasov V.N. Aktual’nost’ sozdanija otraslevoj sistemy obespechenija potrebitel’skogo kachestva jelementov neftegazopromyslovogo oborudovanija i sooruzhenij s zashhitnymi pokrytijami na raznyh stadijah ih zhiznennogo cikla. Zh: «Zashhita ot korrozii Territorii Neftegaz», 2013, no. 4 (In Russian).
8. Protasov V.N. Teorija i praktika primenenija polimernyh pokrytij v oborudovanii i sooruzhenijah neftegazovoj otrasli. M: Nedra, 2007, 375 p. (In Russian).
9. Protasov V.N. Metodologicheskie osnovy vybora sistem lakokrasochnyh i polimernyh pokrytij trebuemogo kachestva dlja razlichnyh vidov oborudovanija i sooruzhenij neftegazovoj otrasli Rossii. Tezisy doklada. 2-ja nauchno-tehnicheskaja konferencija, posvjashhennaja 850-letiju g. Moskvy. Sekcija 5 Sovremennye problemy nadezhnosti i konkurentosposobnosti gazoneftjanogo oborudovanija. GANG im. I.M. Gubkina. M: Neft’ i gaz, 1997 (In Russian).
10. Makarenko A.V. Upravlenie kachestvom polimernogo pokrytija podzemnyh neftegazoprovodov na stadii ih proektirovanija. Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, no. 2, 2004 (In Russian).
11. Makarenko A.V. Nedostatki dejstvujushhih standartov na naruzhnoe protivokorrozionnoe polimernoe pokrytie neftegazoprovodov. Lakokrasochnye materialy i ih primenenie. M.: Himija, 2004, no. 12 (In Russian).
12. Makarenko A.V. Nedostatki normativno-tehnicheskoj dokumentacii, opredeljajushhej kachestvo nasosno-kompressornyh trub i predlagaemye tehnicheskie trebovanija, obuslovlivajushhie ih trebuemoe kachestvo. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2005, no. 5 (In Russian).
13. Protasov V.N. Analiz nedostatkov nacional’nyh standartov, specifikacij i tehnicheskih uslo-vij, opredeljajushhih kachestvo polimernyh pokrytij naruzhnoj i vnutrennej poverhnostej neftegazoprovodov. Korrozija territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2005, no. 1 (In Russian).
14. Protasov V.N. Metodologicheskie osnovy razrabotki tehnicheskih trebovanij k kachestvu polimernogo pokrytija naruzhnoj i vnutrennej poverhnostej neftegazoprovodov. Korrozija Territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2005, no. 1 (In Russian).
15. Protasov V.N. Metodologicheskie osnovy razrabotki normativno-tehnicheskoj dokumentacii na naruzhnoe protivokorrozionnoe pokrytie neftegazoprovodov. Doklady i soobshhenija na nauchno-tehnicheskoj konferencii «Sostojanie i perspektivy primenenija polimernyh pokrytij dlja povyshenija jeffektivnosti raboty i sroka sluzhby neftegazoprovodov. M.: Izd-vo «Neft’ i gaz», 2005 (In Russian).
16. Protasov V.N. Nedostatki normativno-tehnicheskoj dokumentacii, opredeljajushhej kachestvo lakokrasochnyh materialov dlja pokrytij razlichnyh vidov oborudovanija i sooruzhenij neftega-zovoj otrasli. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2 (In Russian).
17. Protasov V.N. Nedostatki normativno-tehnicheskoj dokumentacii, opredeljajushhej kachestvo protivokorrozionnogo pokrytija stal’nyh rezervuarov dlja hranenija nefti i rekomendacii po ee sovershenstvovaniju. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 2 (In Russian).
18. Protasov V.N. Analiz tehnicheskih trebovanij OAO «GAZPROM» k naruzhnym pokrytijam na osnove termoreaktivnyh materialov dlja antikorrozionnoj zashhity trub, soedinitel’nyh detalej, zapornoj armatury i montazhnyh uzlov truboprovodov s temperaturoj jekspluatacii ot minus 200S do pljus 1000S. Korrozija Territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 3 (In Russian).
19. Protasov V.N. O sushhestvennyh nedostakah mezhgosudarstvennogo standarta GOST 9. 602-2005, opredeljajushhego kachestvo naruzhnogo pokrytija podzemnyh sooruzhenij ili «Skol’ko mozhno nastupat’ na odni i te grabli». Korrozija Territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2007, no. 1 (In Russian).
20. Muradov A.V. Metodologicheskie osnovy vybora materialov polimernyh pokrytij dlja predotvrashhenija obrazovanija znachitel’nyh otlozhenij parapfinov i mineral’nyh solej na vnutrennej poverhnosti neftegazoprovodnyh trub. TERRITORIJa NEFTEGAZ, 2008, no. 3 (In Russian).
21. Protasov V.N., Ponomareva M.V. Izoljacija poverhnostej neftegazovogo oborudovanija polimernym pokrytiem-perspektivnoe napravlenie povyshenija ego nadezhnosti i jeffektivnosti raboty oslozhnennyh uslovijah jekspluatacii. Problemy i puti ih reshenija. TERRITORIJA NEFTEGAZ, 2008, no. 6 (In Russian).
22. Protasov V.N. Osnovnye principy razrabotki normativnoj dokumentacii, opredeljajushhej trebuemoe kachestvo vnutrennego polimernogo pokrytija neftegazoprovodnyh trub konkretnogo naznachenija. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2009, no. 3 (In Russian).
23. Protasov V.N. Ob aktual’nosti razrabotki otraslevogo standarta dlja neftegazovoj otrasli Tehnicheskie trebovanija k polimernym pokrytijam naruzhnoj i vnutrennej poverhnostej stal’nyh trub i soedinitel’nyh detalej, ispol’zuemyh dlja stroitel’stva, rekonstrukcii i remonta neftepromyslovyh truboprovodov. Zashhita ot korrozii Territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2013, no. 1 (In Russian).
24. Protasov V.N. O neobhodimosti sovershenstvovanija razrabatyvaemyh neftegazovymi kompanijami tehnicheskih trebovanij k polimernomu pokrytiju vnutrennej poverhnosti stal’nyh trub i soedinitel’nyh detalej, ispol’zuemyh dlja stroitel’stva neftegazopromyslovyh truboprovodov. Zashhita ot korrozii Territorii NEFTEGAZ, 2013, no. 1 (In Russian).
25. Protasov V.N. Fiziko-himicheskaja mehanika materialov oborudovanija i sooruzhenij neftegazovoj otrasli: Uchebnik. M.: Nedra, 2011, 200 p. (In Russian).

2014/4
Using safe process oils produced by deasphalting in tire-tread compounds
Technical sciences

Authors: Dmitrij А. KOZHEVNIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2011. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: d.a.kozhevnikov@yandex.ru
Boris P. TONKONOGOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1973. Doctor of Chemistry, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Specialist in the field of alternative motor fuels based on natural gas, lubricants and additives, including additives for alternative motor fuels. He is author of over 100 scientific and educational works.E-mail:bpt@gubkin.ru
Vladimir A. OS’MUSHNIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2001. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: Ocmushnikov.VA@gazprom-neft.ru
Anzhela F. KARIMOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2013. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: angela.f.karimova@gmail.com

Abstract: To improve the environmental safety of tires the use of plasticizers derived from extracts of selective treatment by propane de-asphalting in commercial tire stocks for passenger cars was studied. Comparative tests with commercial samples of environmentally friendly oils were carried out. It is shown that plasticizers obtained by propane de-asphalting are flexible in processing rubber and possess better physical and mechanical properties in comparison with control samples. Thus, the presented plasticizer is a promising alternative to aromatic oils. This product allows reducing the impact on the environment and contributes to the expansion of the product line of domestic agents

Index UDK: 678.8

Keywords: petroleum plasticizers, rubber softening agents, de-asphalting of lubricant oils, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tire rubber

Bibliography:
1. Null V. Safe Process Oils for Tires with Low Environmental Impact. Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, 1999, no. 12, pp. 799-805.
2. Hesin A.I., Skudatin M.E., Ushmodin V.N. Carcinogenic risk of tires. Nacional’naja bezopasnost’ I geopolitika Rossii. [National Security and Geopolitics of Russia], 2003, no. 10-11, pp. 51-52 (in Russian).
3. Montague P. Tire dust. Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly. Electronic Edition, 1995,no. 439. Available athttp://www.ejnet.org/rachel/rehw439.htm (Accessed 5 May 2014).
4. Information bulletin „Syr’e I materially shinnoj promyshlennosti” [Raw materials of tire industry]. Institut shinnoj promyshlennosti [Institute of tire industry], 2011, р. 194 (in Russian).
5. Markova L.M. Issledovanie produktov pererabotki nefti kak plastifikatorov kauchukov i rezin. Cand, Diss. [Study of refined petroleum products as plasticizers for rubbers. Cand, Diss.]. Moscow, 1964.
6. Rabinovich V.Ju. Рoluchenie masel-plastifikatorov dlja kauchukov i rezin razlichnogo naznachenija. Cand, Diss. [Obtaining of oil-plasticizers for rubbers different purposes. Cand, Diss.]. Moscow, 1975.
7. Bowman I., Da Via M., Pattnelli M. E., Tortoreto P. The Influence of Non-Toxic Blender Oil on SBR Perfomances. [Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe], 2004, no. 01-02, pp. 31-36.
8. Kuta A., Hrdlicka Z., Voldanova J., Brejcha J., Pokorny J., Plitz J. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Rubbers with Standart Oils and Ois with Low Content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. KautschukGummiKunststoffe, 2010, no. 04, pp. 120-122.
9. Flanigan С., Beyer L., Klekamp D., Rohweder D., Haakenson D. Using bio-based plasticizers, alternative rubber. Rubber & Plastics News, 2013, February, 11, pp. 15-19.
10. Tonkonogov B.P., Bagdasarov L.N., Kozhevnikov D.A., Karimova A.F. Separation of solvent extracts using liquid propane to obtain petroleum plasticizers. Himija i tehnologija topliv i masel [Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils], 2013, no. 5, pp. 3-6.
11. Petchkaew A., Sahakaro K., Noordermeer J.W.M. — Petroleum-based Safe Process Oils in NR, SBR and their Blends: Study on Unfilled Compounds. Part I. Oil Characteristics and Solubility Aspects. KautschukGummiKunststoffe, 2013, no. 04, pp. 43-47.
12. Bergmann C., Trimbach J., Haase-Held M., Seidel A. Consequences of European Directive 2005/69/EC for Tire Industry. Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, 2011, no. 10, pp. 25-35.