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2019/3
Features of the calculated determination of the parameters of the stress-strain state of gas pipelines in complex engineering-geological conditions
Geosciences

Authors: Igor A. GOL’DZON graduated from the Siberian state automobile and road Academy in 2008. Candidate of the Department of thermodynamics and heat engines of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in the construction of CNG stations and supply pipelines. Author of 6 scientific publications. E-mail: goldzon.ia@yandex.ru
Alexey P. ZAV’YALOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2002. Candidate of technical Sciences, associate Professor of the Department of oil and gas processing equipment Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in the field of reliability and technical diagnostics of pipeline systems. Author of about 70 scientific publications. E-mail: zavyalovap@yandex.ru

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of construction and operation of CNG stations and supply pipelines in complex engineering-geological conditions. A key factor in ensuring the reliability of operation is the control of the parameters of the stress-strain state. The accuracy of determining the parameters of VAT calculation methods of gas pipelines limited as the accuracy of the initial data for calculations and imperfection modelling approaches numerical schemes of gas pipelines. In the article, on the basis of numerical and experimental work, the rules for the development of computational schemes, setting boundary conditions and loading conditions of gas pipelines in determining the parameters of their stress-strain state by the finite element method are formulated

Index UDK: 620.19

Keywords: gas pipeline, reliability, technical diagnostics, stress-strain state, finite element method

Bibliography:
1. Materialy oficial’nogo sajta PAO “Gazprom”. Available at: https://www.gazprom.ru/about/ production/ngv-fuel/ (accessed 10 July 2019).
2. Kolichestvo avtozapravochnyh stancij (AZS) po sub’ektam Rossijskoj Federacii na ko- nec 2018 goda. Available at: https://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/business/trans-sv/azs.xls (accessed 11 July 2019).
3. Gol’dzon I.A., Zav’yalov A.P. Nadezhnost’ i ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ neftegazovyh ob’ektov v slozhnyh inzhenerno-geologicheskih usloviyah. Zashchita okruzhayushchej sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2019, no. 1, p. 7-9.
4. Gusejnov K.B., Egorov S.I., Zav’yalov A.P., Lopatin A.S. Opyt primeneniya programmnyh kompleksov na osnove metoda konechnyh elementov dlya ocenki napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya magistral’nyh gazoprovodov, prolozhennyh v osobyh klimaticheskih usloviyah. Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2014, no. 1 (95), p. 67-70.
5. Lyapichev D.M. Ocenka vliyaniya napryazhennogo sostoyaniya podzemnyh gazoprovodov na ih stojkost’ k korrozionnomu rastreskivaniyu. Diss. kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 2015, 146 p.
6. Zav’yalov A.P. Sovershenstvovanie metodov ocenki tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya techno- logicheskih truboprovodov po rezul’tatam diagnostirovaniya. Diss. kand. tekhn. nauk. Moscow, 2006, 101 p.
7. Seleznev V.E., Aleshin V.V., Klishin G.S. Metody i tekhnologii chislennogo modelirovaniya gazoprovodnyh sistem. Moscow, Izd-vo “Editorial URSS”, 2002, 448 p.

2019/3
Principles of optimization of operation of gas-distributing unit taking into account non-stationary processes
Technical sciences

Authors: Alexander F. MAKSIMENKO graduated from Gubkin University majoring in Applied Mathematics in 1976. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theoretical Mechanics of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of research of processes in oil and gas reservoirs effected by underground explosions; industrial safety systems after use of explosive technologies in oil and gas fields. He is author of more than 75 scientific publications. E-mail: maf@gubkin.ru
Alexander S. KUZNECHIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2001. He is senior lecturer of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) and specialist in the field of shock wave processes in pipeline systems, standardization and quality management systems. He is author of more than 25 scientific publications.
E-mail: kas@gubkin.ru

Abstract: Оne of basic elements of the gas transmission system of Russia are compressor stations which allow to provide the required volumes of transportation of gas and uninterrupted supply of natural gas to consumers. At the same time every start or shutdown of gas-distributing units at compressor stations, fluctuation in gas consumption, change of temperature and hydraulic operating modes, etc. lead to changes of the operating mode of all elements of the gas pipeline. Therefore, the problem of optimization of operating modes of gas-distributing units is very relevant

Index UDK: 622.691; 533.6

Keywords: gas transmission system, gas transport, gas-distributing unit, system, natural gas

Bibliography:
1. Loitsyansky L.G. Mechanics of fluid and gas. M.: Nauka, 1991, 847 p.
2. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Use of methods of the asymptotic theory for calculation of intensity of the shock wave in pipeline systems Pipeline Transport. Theory and Practice, 2018, no. 1, p. 27-29 (in Russian).
3. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Analysis of basic options for design schemes for natural gas discharge and utilization systems (for gas-main pipelines). Oil, Gas and Business, 2008, no. 10, p. 55-60 (in Russian).
4. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Determination of the intensity of the shock wave as a function of the parameters of the initial state of the gas mixture (with forced discharge of a high-pressure fluid from the process pipeline). Oil, Gas and Business, 2009, no. 1, p. 65-67 (in Russian).
5. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Basic calculation relationships for determining the intensity of the shock wave (in pipeline branches for a one-dimensional design scheme of the shock-wave process). Oil, Gas and Business, 2009, no. 3, p. 57-58 (in Russian).
6. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Analysis of calculation formulas for the limiting stage of the forced natural gas discharge process. Gazovaya promyshlennost, august 2011, p. 48-50 (in Russian).
7. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. Analysis of the influence of the degree of opening of the launching device’s channel on the intensity of the shock wave when a high-pressure gas is discharged from a high-pressure apparatus of a large volume. Oil, Gas and Business, 2012, no. 1-2, p. 106-109 (in Russian).
8. Kuznechikov A.S., Maksimenko A.F. The use of single-channel schemes for the calculation of a shock wave that has passed from a discharge pipeline to a collection manifold. Gazovaya promyshlennost, april 2013, p. 44-46 (in Russian).

2019/3
Prospects for using cyclic airs cooling systems for gas turbine plants based on absorption refrigerating machines as part of compressor stations
Technical sciences

Authors: Tatyana V. POPOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2015. She is postgraduate student, Assistant of the Department of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). E-mail: popova_ttd@mail.ru
Mikhail A. VORONTSOV graduated from Bauman Moscow State Technical Universi- ty in 2007. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head of the Field Compressor and Turbo Refrigeration Systems Sector at OOO “Gazprom VNIIGAZ”, Associate Professor of the Department of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). E-mail: vorontsov.m@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The way for increasing the efficiency of exploitation of compressor stations, equipped with gas turbine gas pumping units, in the hot season using a cycle airs cooling system of gas turbine units based on absorption refrigerating machines is considered. The factors that allow to obtain a useful effect when using cyclic airs cooling systems as part of compressor shops of compressor stations are shown. The article presents applications of absorption refrigerating machines to increase the efficiency of gas turbine installations and the results of the calculations of the influence of the systems cooling cyclic airs of gas turbine installations on the main energy and operational indicators of gas pumping aggregates and compressor shops. Requirements for the characteristics of cyclic airs cooling systems are substantiated, which allows to obtain the greatest technological effect, a methodological approach to assessing the effectiveness of this energy saving event is developed. Various applications of absorption cooling machines as part of compressor shops with gas turbine gas pumping units are considered

Index UDK: 620.9

Keywords: gas pumping unit, gas turbine plant, compressor station, compressor shop, system of cooling cyclic airs gas turbine unit, absorption cooling machine, disposable power, utilization of heat of exhaust gas of gas pumping unit, energy saving event

Bibliography:
1. Gazoperekachivayushchie agregaty s gazoturbinnym privodom na magistral’nyh gazoprovodah. B.P. Porshakov, A.S. Lopatin, S.M. Kupcov, K.H. Shotidi. Uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. M.: OOO “Izdatelskij dom Nedra”, 2010, 245 p.
2. Ckhyaev A.D., Kuzmina T.G. Ispolzovanie ABHM v sistemah ohlazhdeniya vozduha
na vhode v compressor GTU. Turbiny I dizeli. Specializirovannyj informacionno-tekhnicheskij zhurnal, 2015, no. 5, p. 10-13.
3. Povyshenie energeticheskoj ehffektivnosti magistralnogo transporta gaza PAO “Gazprom” na osnove realizacii vysokoehffektivnyh tekhnologij utilizacii teplovoj ehnergii vyhlopnyh gazov gazo-turbinnyh ustanovok gazoperekachivayushchih agregatov. O.E. Aksyutin, A.G. Ishkov, G.A. Hvorov, M.V. Yumashev i dr. Gazovaya promyshlennost’, 2017, no. S1 (750), p. 64-69.
4. Popova T.V., Voroncov M.A. Utilizaciya teploty vyhlopnyh gazov na kompressornyh stan-ciyah. Opyt I perspektivy. Nauch.-tekh. sb. RGU nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina. Magistralnye i promyslovye truboprovody: proektirovanie, stroitelstvo, ehkspluataciya, remont, M.: Izd. centr RGU nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2018, no. 2, p. 27-33.
5. Balzamov D.S., Timershin B.F. Perspektivnye tekhnologii dlya predpriyatij ehnergeticheskoj otrasli. Vesti v ehlektroehnergetike, 2017, no. 5 (91), p. 38-40.
6. Ohlazhdenie ciklovogo vozduha kompressora na PGU-110 (g. Astrahan’) s primeneniem absorbcionnyh bromisto-litievyh holodilnyh mashin (ABHM). D.L. Dogadin, A.B. Anohin, G.G. Latypov, I.N. Krykin. Gazoturbinnye tekhnologii, 2014, no. 7, p. 8-12.
7. Normy tekhnicheskogo proektirovaniya magistralnyh gazoprovodov. STO Gazprom-2-3-5-051-2006. M.: OAO “Gazprom”, 2006, 192 p.
8. Modelirovanie processov v ehnergotekhnologicheskom oborudovanii magistralnyh gazopro-vodov. Chast I. [Ehlektronnyj resurs]: Uchebnoe posobie. A.F. Kalinin, M.A. Voroncov. M.: RGU nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2018.
9. Energosberegayushchie tekhnologii pri magistral’nom transporte prirodnogo gaza. Uchebnoe posobie. B.P. Porshakov, A.S. Lopatin, A.F. Kalinin, S.M. Kupcov i dr. M.: Izd. centr RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2014, 408 p.

2019/3
System for trainees’ actions automatic assessment in computer training complexes
Technical sciences

Authors: Tatiana M. PAPILINA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2012. She is Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor at the Department of Automated Control Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in training software development and distributed and cloud systems design.
E-mail: papilina.tm@asugubkin.ru
Roman L. BARASHKIN graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2006. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor at the Department of Process Control of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in simulation modeling and process automation. He is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: barashkin.r@gubkin.ru
Nikita S. VASILYUK graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2018. He is Master’s degree student at the Department of Automated Control Systems, Gubkin University (National Research University). He is specialist in distributed data processing and analysis. E-mail: sowow359@ya.ru

Abstract: The paper summarizes the theoretical knowledge and practical experience in computer-training complexes (CTC) development and proposes a system for real time automatic student’s actions assessment. The system controls that students’ actions follow the regulated sequence taking into account achievement of target indicators and compliance with technological limitations. The system has been tested as part of gas treatment unit CPC. The results can be used in CTC for continuous technological processes control

Index UDK: 004.9:622.691+004.9:622.279

Keywords: training software, computer learning systems, automatic assessment of trainees’ actions, online learning, process control system

Bibliography:
1. Federal’nyy zakon ot 21.07.1997 No. 116-FZ (red. ot 29.07.2018) “O promyshlennoy bezopasnosti opasnykh proizvodstvennykh obektov”. [Elektronnyy resurs] Rezhim dostupa: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_15234/ , svobodnyy.
2. Sträter O. Cognition and safety: an integrated approach to systems design and assessment. Routledge, 2005, 288 p.
3. Asiryan A.V., Grigor’ev L.I. K otsenke chelovecheskogo faktora v ergaticheskikh sistemakh. Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz’ neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2018, no. 9, p. 46-51.
4. Grigor’ev L.I., Sardanashvili S.A., Dyatlov V.A. Komp’yuterizirovannaya sistema podgotovki dispetcherskogo personala v transporte gaza. Neft’ i gaz, 1996, 195 p.
5. Grigor’ev L.I. K teorii avtomatizirovannogo dispetcherskogo upravleniya. Trudy Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2012, no. 3, p. 124-130.
6. Chistikov S.P., Lavrukhin V.K., Asanov T.A., Grigor’ev L.I., Ermolaev A.I. Tendentsii razvitiya integrirovannykh avtomatizirovannykh sistem upravleniya v gazodobyche. Gazovaya promyshlennost’, 2006, no. 5, p. 199-203.
7. Chikalo V.N., Grigor’ev L.I., Popad’ko V.E. Model’ raspredeleniya proizvoditel’nosti mezhdu UKPG v ASDU tekhnologicheskim protsessom dobychi gaza. Nauka i tekhnologiya uglevodorodov, 2003, no. 2, p. 77-80.
8. Martynov V.G., Sheynbaum V.S., Pyatibratov P.V., Sardanashvili S.A. Realizatsiya mezhdistsiplinarnogo obucheniya v virtual’noy srede proektnoy i proizvodstvennoy deyatel’nosti. Inzhenernoe obrazovanie, 2014, no. 14, p. 5-11.
9. Barashkin R.L., Kalashnikov P.K., Popad’ko V.E., Yuzhanin V.V. Opyt vnedreniya “Komp’yuternogo trenazhernogo kompleksa protsessov podgotovki nefti i gaza k transport” v obrazovatel’nyy protsess. Territoriya Neftegaz, 2017, no. 10, p. 12-19.
10. Abel J. Aging HPI workforce drives need for operator training systems. Hydrocarbon Processing, November 2011, p. 11-16.
11. Sardanashvili S.A., Mitichkin S.K., Leonov D.G., Shvechkov V.A. Innovatsii v podgotovke dispetcherskogo personala gazodobyvayushchikh i gazotransportnykh obshchestv. Gazovaya promyshlennost’, 2015, no. 3, p. 80-84.
12. Dozortsev V.M. Mirovoy rynok komp’yuternykh trenazherov dlya obucheniya operatorov: tendentsii, vyzovy, prognozy. Avtomatizatsiya v promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 2, p. 35-38.
13. SIMONE SOFTWARE Simulation. [Elektronnyy resurs] Rezhim dostupa: http://www.si-mone.eu/simone-simonesoftware-simulation.asp, svobodnyy.
14. Operator Training Simulator. [Elektronnyy resurs] Rezhim dostupa: https://www.yokoga-wa.com/solutions/services/training/operator-training-simulator/, svobodnyy.
15. Rasmussen J. Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics, 1983, no. 3, p. 257-266.
16. Kochueva O.N. Metody otsenki deystviy obuchaemogo v komp’yuternykh trenazhernykh kompleksakh dlya podgotovki dispetcherov v transporte nefti i gaza. Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz’ v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2018, no. 6, p. 31-36.
17. Dozortsev V.M. Naskol’ko polezny komp’yuternye trenazhery dlya obucheniya operatorov? Golos pol’zovateley. Avtomatizatsiya v promyshlennosti, 2016, no. 7, p. 7-13.
18. Dedov D.L., Krasnyanskiy M.N., Rudnev A.A. Virtual’nyy trenazhernyy kompleks preduprezhdeniya i likvidatsii chrezvychaynykh situatsiy tekhnogennogo kharaktera na osnove modelirovaniya deyatel’nosti cheloveka-operatora. Vestnik TGTU, 2012, no. 4, p. 834-839.
19. Barashkin R.L., Zhedyaevskiy D.N., Kalashnikov P.K., Yuzhanin V.V. Modernizatsiya komp’yuternogo trenazhernogo kompleksa po protsessam podgotovki gaza k transportu dlya primeneniya v uchebnom protsesse vuza. Sovremennaya nauka: Aktual’nye problemy teorii i praktiki, 2019, no. 3/2, p. 5-10.

2019/3
Assessing stability of working fluids on hydraulic bench
Chemical sciences

Authors: Valeriy A. MITYAGIN graduated from Military Academy of the Chemical Defense in 1969. He is Doctor of Engineering Sciences, Professor, Laureate of the Russian Federation Government Prize. He has been working in FAE “The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation” since 2016 as leader research scientist. He is author of more than 200 scientific publications, including a number of books, scientific booklets and certificates of authorship. The main research line is chemmotology of grease lubricants, conservation materials, special fluids and protective coatings.
E-mail: vm-432@mail.ru
Igor V. POPLAVSKIY graduated from Ulyanovsk branch of Military Academy of Logistics and Transport in 2001. He has been working in FAI “The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation” since 2001. He has been Head of Fluids and Conservation Materials Laboratory since 2010. He is author of 15 scientific articles. The main research line is chemmotology of special liquids and conservation materials. E-mail: poplavskyiv@yandex.ru
Elena I. SAFRONOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of the Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2018. She is post-graduate student of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants and Chemmotology from Gubkin Russian State University of the Oil and Gas (National Research University). She has been working in FAI “The 25th State Research Institute of Chemmotology of Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation” since 2018 as junior research fellow. Her research focus is chemmotology of special liquids and conservation materials. She is author of 4 published works. E-mail: elena.safronova94@mail.ru

Abstract: It is proposed to use the model hydraulic bench for assessing the stability of working fluids. The results of evaluation of changes in physical, chemical and operational properties of the working fluids during testing on the hydraulic bench are given. It is shown that the proposed work scheme for hydraulic bench allows assessing the stability of working fluids during test process. A fundamental technological scheme and description of work of the hydraulic bench that allows to model variable loads, pressure and temperature during work process of working fluids are presented. A program variant for testing of the working fluids is proposed for hydraulic fluid AMG-10 and possibilities for program estimation of the working fluids are described. Correlation of research results of the working fluids stability during testing on the model bench and in the hydraulic system of machinery during operation is determined

Index UDK: 691.89

Keywords: stability of working fluids, evaluation of physical, chemical and operational properties, hydraulic bench, software

Bibliography:
1. Mityagin V.A., Poplavsky I.V., Tishina E.А. Stability of hydraulic fluids — parameter evaluation of their application. M.: World of Oil Products. The Oil Companies’ Bulletin, 2017, no. 3, p. 24-28 (in Russian).
2. Raskin Y.Е. Working fluids for hydraulic system modern aircrafts. Aviation materials. Scientific and technical collection, 1983, p. 136-141 (in Russian).

2019/3
Approach to development of liquid and solid crosslinkers of aqueous polysaccharide gels for fracturing
Chemical sciences

Authors: Vadim A. TSYGANKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2006. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate professor of the Department of Chemical Reagents for Oil and Gas Industry from Gubkin Russian State University of the Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oilfield chemistry, technologies and reagents for well stimulation, in particular, acid treatment technologies. He is author of more than 40 scientific publications.
E-mail: tsygankov.v@gubkin.ru
Lyubov A. MAGADOVA graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1975. She is Doctor of Technical Sciences. Professor of the Department of Chemical Reagents for Oil and Gas Industry from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oilfield chemistry, reagents and technologies for hydrocarbons recovery processes. She is author of more than 180 scientific publications. E-mail: lubmag@gmail.com
Kirill V. STRIZHNEV graduated from Ufa State Petroleum Technological University in 1999. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of the specialized Department of Technologies for Enhanced Oil Recovery of Hard-To-Recover Reserves from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of deve-lopment and exploitation of oilfields in particular containing hard-to-recover reserves. He is author of more than 60 scientific publications. E-mail: strizhnev.k@gubkin.ru
Denis N. MALKIN graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2007. He is Head of Division of Chemical Reagents for Hydraulic Fracturing, Research and Educational Center “Oilfield Chemistry” from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of reagents and technologies for well stimulation. He is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: malkindn@gmail.com

Abstract: The process of hydraulic fracturing is now one of the most effective methods of oil production stimulation. This has become an integral part of almost every development project. Hydraulic fracturing, however, entails a lot of difficulties and risks. A large number of parameters as well as variability of conditions should be taken into account during the preparation and implementation stage. Risks can be minimized and the quality of the processing can be improved by optimizing chemical reagent handling (transportation, storage, utilization). A special approach helps to optimize the work flow with chemical reagents when not individual chemicals are used, but compositions of chemicals of multifunctional purpose. The development of such compositions can be algorithmized and vary depending on tasks

Index UDK: 622.234.573

Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, crosslinked polysaccharide gel, crosslinking process, commercial form, dry crosslinking composition, granulated crosslinker, li- quid crosslinking composition, liquid crosslinker

Bibliography:
1. Magadova L.A., Silin M.A., Malkin D.N., Tsygankov V.A., Savasteev V.G. New reagents for the hydraulic fracturing. Coiled Tubing Times, 2013, no. 2, p. 64-69.
2. Strizhnev K.V., Tsygankov V.A., Magadova L.A., Kunakova A.M., Duplyakov V.M. Hydraulic fracturing water-based polysaccharide gel crosslinking process analysis. Technologies of oil and gas, 2018, no. 4, p. 38-43.
3. Strizhnev K.V., Tsygankov V.A., Magadova L.A., Kunakova A.M., Gogolev A.A. Solid crosslinker of aqueous polysaccharide gel. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils, 2018, no. 4, p. 13-15.

2019/2
Geochemical parameters interpretation of organic matter of Paleozoic deposits of Pre-Ural foredeep
Geosciences

Authors: Alexander V. OSIPOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2010. He is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Assistant Professor of the Department Theoretical Fundamentals of Prospecting and Exploration of Oil and Gas of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is author of more than 50 scientific publications. E-mail: alexander.v.osipov@gmail.com
Islam I. RASULOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2017. He is specialist in pneumatic testing oil and gas pipelines at Halliburton International GmbH. He is author of 3 scientific publications.
E-mail: rasulovislamm@gmail.com
Kanshaubiy Kh. MALKAROV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2017. He is specialist in pneumatic testing oil and gas pipelines at Halliburton International GmbH. He is author of 3 scientific publications.
E-mail: kanshaubi.m@gmail.com

Abstract: This article is devoted to the study of petroleum properties of Paleozoic deposits of the southern part of the Pre-Urals foredeep on the basis of which the probable oil-material strata of the section were substantiated. The reason for this research was the low efficiency of geological exploration in the region of the study due to underestimated geochemical criteria. According to the results of the research it was found that within the southern part of the Pre-Ural foredeep, deposits of Middle-Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian systems are characterized by oil and gas deposits, which are characterized by good generation potential

Index UDK: 550.8.055

Keywords: kerogen, organic matter, source rocks, bitumen, Rock-Eval, vitrinite, Pre-Ural foredeep, source rocks.

Bibliography:
1. Ermolkin V.I., Kerimov V.Y., Filippov V.P., Filin A.S. Oil and gas prospects of the Orenburg part of the Pre-Ural regional trough. Neftegazovaya Geologicheskaya nauka — XXI century: XVII Gubkin Readings (December 9-10, 2004, Moscow). — Tez. report. Sec 1: Geology M.: RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2004, p. 44-51.
2. Peters K.E., Cassa M.R. Applied source rock geochemistry. The petroleum system — from source to trap, AAPG Memoir 60, 1994, p. 93-120.
3. Osipov A.V., Voctrukhov M.E., Osipova E.V., Monakova A.S. Geochemical characteristics of organic matter of paleozoic deep horizons of the southern part of the Orenburg Pre-Urals (Pre-Urals Foredeep). Oil, gas and business, 2014, no. 9, p. 35-43.
4. Osipov A.V., Mustaev R.N., Osipova E.V., Monakova A.S. Geochemical characteristics of organic matter of paleozoic deep horizons of the southern part of the Orenburg Pre-Urals (Sol-Iletsky Arc). Oil, gas and business, 2014, no. 10, p. 30-38.

2019/2
Diagenesis processes and their effect on reservoir properties of the Lower Miocene reservoirs in the Garmian block, Kurdistan, Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Kardo Sardar MOHAMMED graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2002 (B.Sc.), in 2010 (M.Sc.) in the same university, and graduated from the Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas in 2016 (M.Sc.). He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin University. His scientific interests are related to petrophy-sical analysis and reservoir modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: kardo80@yahoo.com
Marina I. TRUNOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate Professor, senior lecturer of the Department of Geology of Petroleum Systems of Gubkin University. She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of more than 20 scientific publications.
E-mail: mtrunova@gmail.com

Abstract: In the Iraqi Kurdistan, the most significant oil deposits are concentrated in the Cretaceous and lower Miocene sediments. In this paper we used data on the recently discovered Sarqala and Shakal oilfields. The Lower Miocene formations of Euphrates and Jeribe are the main target objects of the tertiary oil and gas system in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The formations are composed of carbonates with a few interbeds of evaporites of the Dhiban formation. The rocks of the studied formations are affected by a number of diagenetic processes, including dolomitization, micritization, cementation, neomorphism, leaching, compaction, styllolitization, pyritization and anhydration. The most significant of these are the processes of dolomitization, dissolution, neomorphism, cementation and compaction. The processes of dolomitization and dissolution improve the quality of reservoirs, while neomorphism, carburization and compaction have a negative effect. Fracturing plays a significant role in the increased porosity and permeability of the rocks studied, mainly in calcareous mudstone and wackestone.

Index UDK: 552.5 (419)

Keywords: diagenesis processes, reservoir properties, lower miocene forma-tions, Jerib, Dhiban, Euphrates, Kurdistan, Iraq

Bibliography:
1. Jassim S.Z., Goff J.C. Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague, and Moravian Museum Brno, Czech Republic, 2006, 341 p.
2. Aqrawi A.A.M., Goff J.C., Horbury A.D., Sadooni F.N. Petroleum Geology of Iraq. Scientific press Lt Po box 21, Beaconsfield, Bucks HP9 1NS, UK, 2010, 424 p.
3. Buday T., Jassim S.Z. The Regional Geology of Iraq, Tectonism, Magmatism, and Meta- morphism. State Establishment of Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation, Baghdad, Iraq, 1987, 352 p.
4. Al-Juburi A.I., McCann T., Ghazal M.M. Rekonstraktsiia istochnikov snosа dlja peschanikov miotsena Severnogo Iraka (na osnovanii petrograficheskogo analiza, analiz veshchestvennogo sostava i himii mineralov oblomochnoij sostavliajiyshchej). Geologja i geofisika, 2009, t. 50, no. 6, p. 670-690 (in Russian).
5. Al-Juboury A.L., Al-Tarif A.M., Al-Eisa M. Basin analysis of the Burdigalian and Early Langhian successions, Kirkuk Basin, Iraq. 7-In: B.C. Schreiber, S. Lugli, & M. Babel. (eds). Evaporites Through Space and Time. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2007, no. 285, p. 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP285.4
6. Bellen R.C., Dunnington H.V., Wetzel R., Morton D. Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Iraq, 1959, vol. 3C, no. 10a, 333 p.
7. Al-Ameri T.K., Zumberg J., Markarian Z.M. Hydrocarbons in the Middle Miocene Jeribe Formation Dyala Region, NE Iraq. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2011, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 199-216.
8. Evamy B.D., Shearman D.J. The development of overgrowth from echinoderm fragments in limestones. Sedimentology, 1965, vol. 5, p. 211-233.
9. Sibley D.F. The origin of common dolomite fabrics: clues from the Pliocene//Journal of Sedi- ment Research. — 1982. — Vol .52. — P. 1087-1100.
10. Longman M.W. Carbonate diagenetic textures from near surface diagenetic environments. AAPG Bulletin, 1980, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 461-487.
11. Tucker M.E., Wright V.P. Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1990, 496 p.
12. Flugel E. Microfacies analysis of limestones. Translated by K. Christenson. Berlin: Springer, 1982, 633 p.
13. Searl A. Diagenesis of the Gully Oolite (Lower Carboniferous), South Wales. Geological Journal, 1989, vol. 24, p. 275-293.
14. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004, 976 p.
15. Choquette P.W., Pray L.C. Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1970, vol. 54, p. 207-250.
16. Scoffin T.P. Introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks. Glasgow: Blackie, 1987, 274 p.

2019/2
Lithological and facial characteristics of formation of reservoir rocks of middle permian sedimentations in Western Sulige gas field (China)
Geosciences

Authors: Mingyu HE is postgraduate student of thе Department of General and Oil and Gas Production Geology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). E-mail: hemingyu567890@gmail.com

Abstract: Based on the analysis of core and thin sections of the middle Permian sedimentations in the western Sulige gas field, three main types of sedimentary facies have been identified i.e. meander, anastomosis and braided river. This paper analyzed sedimentary facies in a single well, and determined the lithology and sedimentary facies of each layer. The construction of paleogeological profiles in the profile and paleogeographic maps on the plane is based on the results of well logging data and comprehensive analysis of each well. It was revea- led that in this region the paleochannel sandstones in the lower part of forma- tion He8 (h8x) are characterized by braided river. In the upper part of forma- tion He8 (h8s) braided river changed into meander and anastomosis. In the formation of Shanxi1 (s1), two or three anastomoses developed in the direction from north to south

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: Ordos Basin, Western Sulige Gas Field, sedimentary facies, analysis of cores and thin sections, paleogeological profile

Bibliography:
1. Lobusev A.V., Zezhang Song. Ocenka gazosoderzhaniya slancevogo kollektora na primere S-regiona v bassejne Ordos. Tezisy dokladov odinnadcatoj Vserossijskoj konferencii molodyh uche- nyh, specialistov i studentov «Novye tekhnologii v gazovoj promyshlennosti (gaz, neft’, energetika)». Moskva, 2015.
2. Lobusev M.A., Dzhedzhang Song, Dzhensyue Dzyang. Prognozirovanie plastovogo davleniya v glinisto-slancevyh kollektorah na primere S-regiona v bassejne Ordos. Territoriya «NEFTE-GAZ», 2015, no. 8, p. 20-28.
3. Lobusev M.A., Zezhang S., Guangdi L., Zhenxue J. Tekhnologiya del’ta LogR dlya ocenki Corg nizkozrelogo slancevogo kollektora na primere C-regiona bassejna Ordos. Delovoj zhurnal Neftegaz.RU, 2016, no. 10, p. 86-92.
4. Lobusev M.A., Zechzhan Son, Dzhensyuz Dzyang. Povyshenie effektivnosti prognozirovaniya soderzhaniya prirodnogo gaza v kontinental’nyh slancevyh porodah na primere bassejna Ordos. Gazovaya promyshlennost’, 2017, no. 6 (753), p. 14-20.

2019/2
Construction and practical application of four component diagram for bazhen suite sedimentary rocks
Geosciences

Authors: Milena R. GANAEVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. She has been post-graduate student of the Department of Lithology since 2016. She works as the main specialist in lithology, geomechanics and geological modeling at OOO RN-SakhalinNIPImorneft. She is author of more than 10 scientific publications including three scientific papers. E-mail: milenagana@gmail.com

Abstract: A new approach to Bazhen suite rocks typing is proposed. This is based on the mathematical framework and conforms to the conventional sedimentary rocks classification. This approach takes into account the quantity of four basic Bazhen rocks components. They are kerogen, carbonate, clay and silica. Using these data a four component tetrahedron diagram was created. This diagram helps to observe the mutual relations of the complicated Bazhen rocks, to find some genesis correlations, define the unit boundaries and the most perspective reservoirs in the normal frameworks of the Bazhen formation

Index UDK: 552.24

Keywords: Bazhen suite, unconvential reservoirs, sedimentary rocks classification, oil-source rocks, Western Siberia

Bibliography:
1. Dorofeeva T.V., Krasnov S.G., Lebedev B.A., Petrova G.V., Pozinenko B.V. Kollektory nefti bazhenovskoj svity Zapadnoj Sibiri [Oil reservoirs of Bazenov suite of Western Siberia]. Leningrad: Nedra, 1983, 131 p.
2. Shvanov V.N., Frolov V.T., Sergeeva E.I. Sistematika I klassifikatsii osadochnykh porod i ikh analogov [Systematics and Classification of sedimentary rocks and its analogues]. St. Petersburg: Nedra, 1998, 352 p.
3. Braduchan J.V., Gurari F.G., Zakharov V.A. Bazhenovskij gorizont Zapadnoy Sibiri [Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1986, 217 p.
4. Kulyapin P.S., Sokolova T.F. Ispolzovanie statisticheskogo podkhoda pri interpretatsii dannykh GIS v neftematerinskikh porodakh bazhenovskoj svity Zapadno-Sibirskoj neftegazonosnoj provintsii [Practical use of statistical method for well logging interpretation in source rocks of Bazhen suite of Western-Siberian oil and gas province]. Tekhnologii seismorazvedki, 2013, no. 3, p. 28-42.
5. Jurchenko A.J. Formirovanie vtorichnykh karbonatnykh porod verkhneabalaksko-bazhenov-skoj tolshi Salymskogo, Pravdinskogo i Malobalykskogo neftanykh mestorozhdenij [Genesis of se- condary carbonate rocks of upper Abalak suite and Bazhenov suite of Salymskoe, Pravdinskoe and Malobalykskoe oil fields]. Dissertation abstract. Moscow, 2017, 22 p.