Extended Search

- in all fields
- in the title
- in key words
- in the abstract
- in the bibliography
Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Lower Miocene Formations in the Garmian block, Kurdistan, Iraq

Authors: Kardo S. MOHAMMED graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2002 (B.Sc.), in 2010 (M.Sc.) in the same university, and graduated from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016 (M.Sc.). He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). His scientific interests are related to petrophysical analysis and reservoir modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: kardo80@yahoo.com
Natalia N. KOSENKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of 4 monographs and more than 20 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: N.N.Kosenkova@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The article uses data on the recently discovered oil fields of Sargala and Shakal, in the zone of the Kirkuk basin of the Zagros folded-thrust belt. The Lower Miocene formations (Euphrates and Jeribe) are the target objects of the tertiary oil and gas system in Iraqi Kurdistan, along with the Oli- gocene (Kirkuk). Formations are composed of carbonates with a few interbeds of evaporites of the Dhiban formation. In the framework of this study, 15 facies were identified based on the analysis of faunal residues (mainly benthic foraminifera) and texture-structural characteristics of sedimentary rocks. The facies of the Jeribe formation showed to be deposited of the inner part of the carbonate ramp, while the Dhiban formation corresponds to the conditions of the coastal Sebkha and isolated lagoon and shallow waters of the open sea. The Euphrates Formation was deposited in an open shallow-marine environment to the isolated lagoon

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: facies analysis, sedimentary environments, Lower Miocene formations, Jeribe, Dhiban, Euphrates, basal anhydrite, Kurdistan

1. Al-Juburi A.I., McCann T., Ghazal M.M. Rekonstruktsiia istochnikov snosa dlja peschani- kov Miotsena severnogo Iraka (na osnovanii petrograficheskogo analiza, analiz veshchestvennogo sostava i himii mineralov oblomochnoij sostavliajiyshchej. Geologja i geofisika, 2009, t. 50, no. 6, p. 670-690.
2. Irak. Geologicheskoe stroenie, neftegazonosnost’ i sostoyanie neftegazovoj promyshken- nosti. obrabotka i interpritacija sejsmicheskih materialov po licenzionnym blokam v Yuzhnoj i central’noj chastyah Zapadnoj Pustyni, ocenka prognoznyh resursov nefti i gaza. M.: Sovgeoinfo, 2009, t. I, 158 p.
3. Al-Juboury A.L., Al-Tarif A.M., Al-Eisa M. Basin analysis of the Burdigalian and Early Langhian successions, Kirkuk Basin, Iraq/7-In: B.C. Schreiber, S. Lugli & M. Babel. — (eds). Evapo-rites Through Space and Time/Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2007, no. 285, p. 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP285.4
4. Al-Dabbas M.A., Al-Sagri K.E.A., Al-Jassim J.A., Al-Jwaini Y.S. Sedimentological and diagenetic study of the Early Middle Miocene Jerib Limestone Formation in selected wells from Iraq northern oilfields (Ajil; Hamrin; Jadid; Khashab). Journal of Baghdad for Science, 2013, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 207-216.
5. English J.M., Lunn G.A., Ferrier L., Yacu G. Geologic Evolution of the Iraqi Zagros, and its Influence on the Distribution of Hydrocarbons in the Kurdistan Region. AAPG Bulletin, 2015, vol. 99, no. 02, p. 231-272. https://doi:10.1306/06271413205
6. Sissakian V.K., Karim S.A., Al-Kubaisyi K.N., Al-Ansari N., Knutsson S. The Miocene Sequence in Iraq, a review and discussion, with emphasize on the stratigraphy, paleoecology and economic potential. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 2016, vol. 6, no. 03, p. 271-317.
7. Bellen R.C., Dunnington H.V., Wetzel R., Morton D. Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Iraq, 1959, vol. 3C, no. 10a, 333 p.
8. Karim S.A., Sissakian V.K. and Al-Kubaysi K.N. Stratigraphy of the Oligocene-Early Miocene exposed in Sinjar area, NW Iraq. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 2014, vol. 10, no. 03, p. 1-28.
9. Dunnington H.V. Generation, migration, accumulation, and dissipation of oil in northern Iraq. In L.G. Weeks (editor) AAPG Habitat of oil: A Symposium: AAPG Special Publication 18, 1958, p. 1194-1251.
10. Buday T., Jassim S.Z. The Regional Geology of Iraq, Tectonism, Magmatism, and Metamorphism. State Establishment of Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation, Baghdad, Iraq, 1987, vol. 2, 352 p.
11. Dunham R.J. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In Ham W.E. (ed.), Classification of carbonate rocks: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 1987, p. 108-121.
12. Wilson J.L. Carbonate Facies in Geologic History. Springer Verlag, New York, 1975, vol. 13, 108 p.
13. Tucker M.E., Wright V.P., Dickson J. Carbonate sedimentology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, London, 1990, 482 p.
14. Nicholas G. Sedimentological and stratigraphy. 2ed edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, 2009, 419 p.
15. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004, 976 p.
16. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, 984 p.
17. Gawthorpe R.L. Sedimentation during carbonate ramp-to-slope evolution in a tectonically active area: Bowland Basin (Dinantian), northern England. Sedimentology, 1986, vol. 33, issue 2, p. 185-206.
18. Warren J.K., Kendall C.G.S. Comparison of sequences formed in marine sabkha (subaerial) and salina (subaqueous) settings-modern and ancient. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1985, vol. 69, no. 06, p. 1013-1023.
19. Kendall A.C. Facies models 11. Continental and supratidal (sabkha) evaporites. Geoscience Canada, 1978, vol. 5, no. 02, p. 66-78.
20. Krumbein W.E. and Cohen Y. Primary production, mat formation and lithification: contribution of oxygenic and facultative anoxygenic cyanobacteria. In Flugel E. (ed.), Fossil Algae: Resent Results and Development. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977, p. 37-56.
21. MacEachern J.A., Pemberton S.G., Bann K.L. and Gingras M.K. Departures from the arche- typal ichnofacies: Effective recognition of environmental stress in the rock record. Applied Ichnology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Short Course Notes, 2007, vol. 52, p. 65-92. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.07.52.0065
22. Al-Ghreri M.F., Al-Gibour A.S., Al-Heety S.O. Facies Characteristics, Depositional Environments and Sequences Stratigraphy of the Euphrates Formation in Hadetha Area, Western Iraq. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2015, vol. 4, issue 4, p. 181-189.
23. Boggs Jr.S. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. (4th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2006, 662 p.
24. Nichols G. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 419 p.
25. Aleali M., Rahimpour-Bonab H., Moussavi-Harami R., Jahani D. Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2013, vol. 75, p. 110-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jseaes.2013.07.017

Biomarker characterizations of the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish formation in the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan, Northern Iraq

Authors: Rebaz A. HAMA AMIN graduated from University of Sulaimani in 2012, Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. Post-graduate student in the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems in Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Scientific interests are related with geochemical studies of oils and source rock samples and basin modeling study. He is an author of 1 scientific publication. E-mail: Rebaz_1989sa@yahoo.com
Natalia N. KOSENKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980, and Post-graduate degree in 1987. Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, teaching on the discipline “Formation of hydrocarbon systems” in Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in the field of oil and gas fields’ exploration. She is author of 4 monographs and more than 20 scientific publications in Russian and foreign issues. E-mail: N.N.Kosenkova@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The geochemical studies were performed for the core samples of Shiranish formation in the depth interval of (3680-3950) from the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan. These rock samples comprise shale rocks. The geochemical investigation of biomarker parameters were performed for extract rock samples from Shiranish formation using gas chromatography GC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC/MS — for saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and GC/MS/ MS — for saturated hydrocarbon. In addition, performed carbon isotope analysis of saturated and aromatic fractions. The extract samples are characterized by a high Pr/Ph ratio (> 1,0), a relatively high oleanine ratio, an abundance of mode- rate C27 regular steranes and disteranes, a relatively high C30 sterane index, presence of tricyclic terpanes, relatively low dibenzothiophene/phenanthrene ratios, a high CPI ratio (³ 1,0) and high Pr/n-C17 values in combination with low Ph/n-C18 values.
All of the above parameters indicate on the mixed type of organic matter: kerogen type II + III with a predominance of type II. According to the results of diagnostics, Source rock, represented by calcareous marls, were deposited under weak reducing conditions during diagenesis and have a high degree of maturity.

Index UDK: 551.24

Keywords: biomarker, Shiranish formation, Iraqi Kurdistan, organic matter, oil, depositional environment, maturity

1. Bacon C.N., Calver C.R., Boreham C.J., Lenman D.E., Morrison K.C., Revill A.T. and Volkman J.K. The Petroleum Potential of Onshore Tasmania: a review, Geological Survey Bulletin, 2000, 71, p. 1-93.
2. Buday T. The Regional Geology of Iraq, Volume 1, Stratigraphy and Paleogeography. Dar Al-Kutub (Mosul University, Iraq), 1980, 445 р.
3. Jassim S. Z., Goff J.C. Geology of Iraq. Published by Dolin, Brague Moravian Museum, Berno, 2006, 345 p.
4. Hill R.J., Jarvie D.M., Zumberg J., Henry M., Pollastro R.M. Oil and Gas geochemistry and Petroleum Systems of the Fort Worth Basin, AAPG, 2007, vol. 91, no. 4, p. 445-473.
5. Killops K. and Killops V. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry, second edition, black well publishing, 2005, 393 p.
6. Osuji L.C., Antia B.C. Geochemical Implication of some Chemical Fossils as Indicators of Petroleum Source Rocks, AAPL Journal, Sci. Environ. Mgt., 2005, vol. 9, no.1, p. 45-49.
7. Peters K.E., Fowler M.G. Applications of petroleum geochemistry to exploration and reservoir management, Review, Organic Geochemistry, 2002, vol. 33, p. 5-36.
8. Peters K.E., Walters C.C., Moldowan J.M. The Biomarker Guide, Second Edition. Volume II. Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Systems and Earth History, United Kingdom at the Cambridge University Press, 2005, 684 p.
9. Philp R.P. Formation and Geochemistry of Oil and Gas, in Treatise on Geochemistry, Holland, H.D. and Turekian, K.K. (Executive eds.), vol. 7. Sediments, Diagenesis and Sedimentary Rocks, Mackenzie F.T. (Volume Editor). Elsevier pergamon, 2003, p. 223-256.
10. Rohrback B.G. Crude Oil Geochemistry of the Gulf of Suez, Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1983, p. 39-48.
11. Sadi Kan Jan Kaka. Sediment logical study of Shiranish formation well DD-1 (N-IRAQ), bull. Iraq nat. Hist. Mus., 2010, p. 47-56.
12. Shanmugam G. Significance of coniferous rain forests and related organic matter in genera- ting commercial quantities of oil, Gippsland Basin, Australia. AAPG Bulletin, 1985, no. 69 (8), p. 1241-1254.
13. Sletten E.B. A comparison of Petroleum from Reservoirs and Petroleum Inclusions in Authigenic Mineral Cements-Haltenbanken. University of Oslo, Department of Geology, 2003, p. 80-107.
14. Sofer Z. Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude oils-application to source depositional environments and petroleum alteration. AAPG Bulletin, 1984, v. 68, no. 1, p. 31-49.
15. Younes M.A., Philp R.P. Source Rock Characterization based on Biological Marker Distribution of Crude Oils in the Southern Gulf of Suez Egypt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2005, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 301-317.