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2019/4
Characterization and oil-oil correlation for the Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfields based on bio-markers analysis, Kurdistan, Northern Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and AAPG, head of the Geology of Hydrocar- bon Systems Department at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. He is author of 4 monographs and more than 60 scientific publications in Russian and international perio- dicals. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru
Rebaz Abdalaziz HAMA AMIN graduated from University of Sulaimani in 2012 and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). His scientific interests are related with geochemical studies of oils and source rock samples and basin modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: Rebaz_1989sa@yahoo.com
Natalia N. KOSENKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of 4 monographs and more than 20 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: N.N.Kosenkova@gubkin.ru
Marina I. TRUNOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: mtrunova@gmail.com

Abstract: Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods are used to analyze crude oils obtained from Mil Qasim (MQ-1) and Sarqala (S-1) oilfields of south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan using different biomarkers coefficients. Biomarkers characterization are used to provide information on the source of the organic matter, depositional environment, degree of maturity, age determination of the crude oils and their correlation between each other. The used data include normal alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids distributions, terpans, hopanes, steranes and diasternes aliphatic biomarkers, the distribution of aromatic biomarkers naphthalenes, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, methyldibenzothiophenes and stable carbon isotope. The oil samples from Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfields are characterized by a low Pr/Ph ratio (< 1,0), a relatively low oleanane ratio, abundance of moderate C27 regular steranes and diasteranes, a relatively high C30 sterane index, the presence of tricyclic terpenes, relatively high dibenzothiophene / phenanthrene ratios, high CPI ratio (≥ 1,0) and high Ph/nC18 ratio. All of the above parameters indicate that the source rocks represented by calcareous marls were deposited under anoxic — reducing marine environments with type II of organic matter and were generated at moderate stage of maturity. All of the age diagnosed biomarker parameters indicate that the source of oils in Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfield are the Lower Cretaceous formations (Balambo-Qamchuqa formations). Two samples of oil from the Mil Qasim field (MQ-1) and oil samples from the Sarkal field (S-1) show an excellent oil-oil correlation based on the comparison of biomarker characteristics.<

Index UDK: 550.4+553.98(55)

Keywords: biomarker, correlation, Iraqi Kurdistan, organic matter, oil, depositio- nal environment, maturity of the oil

Bibliography:
1. Grantham P.J., Wakefield L.L. Variations in the sterane carbon number distributions of marine source rock derived crude oils through geological time. Organic Geochemistry, 1988, vol. 12, p. 61-73.
2. Hama Amin R.A. Geochemical characterization of the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish formation speak of his high potential in the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 8 (118), p. 50-55.
3. Mohialdeen I.M.J., Hakimi M.H., Al-Beyati F.M. Geochemical and petrographic characterization of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Chia Gara Formation in Northern Iraq: palaeoenvironment and oil generation potential. Mar Pet Geol, 2013, vol. 43, p. 166–177.
4.
Killops K., Killops V. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry, second edition, Black well publishing, 2005, 393 р.
5. Osuji L.C., Antia B.C. Geochemical Implication of some Chemical Fossils as Indicators of Petroleum Source Rocks, AAPL Journal, Sci. Environ. Mgt, 2005, vol. 9, no.1, p. 45-49.
6. Peters K.E., Walters C.C., Moldowan J.M. The Biomarker Guide, Second Edition, vol. II. Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Systems and Earth History. United Kingdom at the Cambridge University Press, 2005, 684 p.
7. Shanmugam G. Significance of coniferous rain forests and related organic matter in generating commercial quantities of oil, Gippsland Basin, Australia. AAPG Bulletin, 1985, no. 69 (8), p. 1241-1254.
8. Sofer Z. Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude oils-application to source depositional environments and petroleum alteration. AAPG Bulletin, 1984, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 31-49.
9. Wang Y., Cerling T.E., Effland W.R. Stable isotope ratios of soil carbonate and soil organic matter as indicators of forest invasion of prairie near Ames, Iowa. Oecologia, 1993, no. 95, р. 3-365.
10. Waples D.W., Machihara T. Biomarkers for geologists, A practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum geology. AAPG Methods in Exploration, 1991, vol. 9, no. 91, 69 р.
11. Wan Hasiah A., Abolins P. Organic petrological and organic geochemical characterization of the Tertiary coal-bearing sequence of Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 1998, vol. 16, no. 4, p. 315-367.
12. Younes M.A., Philp R.P. Source Rock Characterization based on Biological Marker Distribution of Crude Oils in the Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2005, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 301-317.

2019/3
Assessment of the influence of fracturing on the reservoir characteristics at Sarqala field, Zagros fold and thrust belt - Northern Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Hoshmanad M. ALI graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2012, from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Scientific interests are related with tectonics and structural studies as well as fracture modeling of fractured oil and gas reservoirs. E-mail: mustafahoshmand1@gmail.com
Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and AAPG, Head of the Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems Department at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields’ exploration. He is author of four mo-nographs and more than 60 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru

Abstract: We consider the fracture modeling on the base of stress inversion model, as a tool for detecting discontinuities in Jeribe/U. Dhiban carbonate reservoir and, consequently, determining prospective areas for drilling wells at Sarqala field, North of Iraq. This method works on the stress heterogeneity caused by the activation of the main faults, and is formalized using the boundary element method in Petrel software

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: Zagros fold thrust belt, geomechanics, inversion of paleostresses, faults, tectonics, fracture network (DFN)

Bibliography:
1. Al-Kadhimi J.A.M., Sissekian V.I., Fattah A.S. and Deikran D.B. Tectonic Map of Iraq Series of Geological Maps of Iraq scale 1:1 000 000, sheet, GEOSURV. Baghdad, Iraq, 1996, 2 nd-ed., no. 2.
2. Dewey J.F., Holdsworth R.E., Strachan R.A. Transpression and transtension zones. Geological Society, London, 1998. DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1998.135.01.01.
3. McClay K. and Bonora M. Analog models of restraining stepovers in strike-slip fault systems. AAPG Bulletin, 2001, vol. 85, no. 2. p. 233–260.
4.
Hama Amin R.A. Geochemical characterization of the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish formation speak of his high potential in the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 8 [118], p. 50-55.

2018/4
Undiscovered oil and gas accumulations of Bukharo-Khiva region forecast based on statistical analysis of resources
Geosciences

Authors: Tatiana V. SIVAYKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2009 and Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas in 2011. She is post-graduate student of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Her research interests are associated with statistical analysis of oil and gas resources. She is author of 3 scientific publications. E-mail: tsivaykova@gmail.com
Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and AAPG, Head of the Department of Geo- logy of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. He is author of 4 monographs and more than 60 scientific publications in Russian and foreign periodicals. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The article briefly reviews the features of Bukharo-Khiva region resources analysis, the methodology used and the results achieved. The geological concept of this region based on the available geological, geophysical as well as statistical data was reviewed. For that purpose 2 base methodologies were applied: discovered and undiscovered oil and gas accumulations distribution according to the reserves volumes [6] and functional relation of the discovered accumulations distribution according to their reserves volumes [4]. The first methodology allowed calculation of the expected accumulations amount and their resources volumes in Bukharo-Khiva region, while the second one provided us with their more precise approximate volumes in 4 different oil and gas accumulation areas with reference to different plays. On the basis of the available data the expected fluid types and probable accumulations localization forecast was conducted as well.

Index UDK: 550.812.1

Keywords: accumulation, Bukharo-Khiva region, distribution, gas, hydrocarbons, oil, resources

Bibliography:
1. Gutman I.S., Saakyan M.I. Metody podscheta zapasov i otsenki resursov nefti i gaza: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. M.: OOO “Izdatel’skiy dom Nedra”, 2017, 366 p.
2. Kontorovich A.E., Demin V.I. Metod otsenki kolichestva i raspredeleniya po zapasam mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza v krupnykh neftegazonosnykh basseynakh. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1977, no. 12, p. 18-26.
3. Kontorovich A.E., Demin V.I. Prognoz kolichestva i raspredeleniya po zapasam mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza. Geologiya i geofizika, 1979, no. 3, p. 26-46.
4. Piter R. Rouz. Analiz riskov i upravlenie neftegazopoiskovymi proektami. M.-Izhevsk: NITs “RKhD”, Izhevskiy institut komp’yuternykh issledovaniy, 2011, 304 p.
5. Shpil’man V.I. Kolichestvennyy prognoz neftegazonosnosti. Ekaterinburg: Izdatel’skiy Dom “IzdatNaukaServis”, 2010, 236 p.
6. Shpil’man V.I., Tszin’ Chzhi Tszyun’. Zakon raspredeleniya vyyavlennykh i nevyyavlennykh zalezhey nefti i gaza po velichine zapasov. Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1993, no. 11.

2018/3
Information and technical support for reservoir management in national oil and gas producing companies
Geosciences

Authors: Andrey I. IPATOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Geophysical Information Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in the field of geophysical and hydrodynamic control of development of oil and gas fields.
E-mail: ipatov.ai@gazprom-neft.ru
Victor G. MARTYNOV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1975. He is Doctor of Economics, Rector of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of geophysics, human resource management and economics. He is author of more than 150 scientific publications.
E-mail: v.martynov@gubkin.ru
Danila N. GULYAEV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2001. Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor of the Department of Geophysical Information Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in reservoir management and oil and gas fields development.
E-mail: letter_to_me@rambler.ru
Mikhail I. KREMENETSKIY graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1973. Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Geophysical Information Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Specialist in the field of geophysical and hydrodynamic control of development of oil and gas fields.
E-mail: kremenetskiy.mi@gazpromneft-ntc.ru
Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Geology of Petroleum Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He specializes in the field of petroleum geology, associated with the development of complex reservoirs, formation conditions and prognosis of unstructured hydrocarbon traps. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru
Alexander A. RIDEL graduated from Tyumen State University in 2003. Head of the Department for Interpretation and Analysis of Well Testing, Gazpromneft NTC. Specialist in the field of well testing. E-mail: trydyrgy@gubkin.ru

Abstract: A systematic approach to reservoir management at a vertically integrated oil company is presented, the informative value and effective implementation of the permanent reservoir monitoring is described and the results are shown, which are expressed in the production and field recovery increase

Index UDK: 532.5; 622.276

Keywords: reservoir management, oil recovery factor, production enhancement operations, maintenance of reservoir pressure, horizontal well completions, hydraulic fracturing and spontaneous fracturing, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, well logging in open hole and cased hole, well-testing, permanent downhole gages, databases, automated workstations

Bibliography:
1.RD 153-39.0-109-01. Methodical instructions on the integration and the stages of the performance of production logging, well-testing and geochemical survey of oil and oil and gas fields. Moscow, 2002 (in Russian).
2.Kremeneckij M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gulyaev D.N. Informacionnoe obespechenie i tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya neftyanyh i gazovyh zalezhej [Informational and technological support of dynamic reservoir modeling of oil and gas fields]. M.-Izhevsk, 2011, 896 p.
3.Ipatov A.I., Kremeneckij M.I. Long-term monitoring of reservoir parameters as a progressive trend of modern well-testing. Inzhenernaya praktika [Engineering practice], 2012, no. 9, p. 4-8 (in Russian).
4.Adiev A.R., Laptev V.V., Ipatov A.I. i dr. Development of well logging technologies in the process of hydrocarbon production for monitoring of commingled layers. Karotazhnik [The well-log analyst], 2014, no. 2, p. 48-59 (in Russian).
5.Martynov V.G., Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Gulyaev D.N., Krichevskiy V.M., Kokuri- na V.V., Melnikov S.I. Permanent reservoir monitoring by logging gages at the stage of tight oil reco- very. Neftyanoe hozyajstvo [Oil Industry], 2014, no. 3, p. 106-109 (in Russian).
6.Gulyaev D.N., Kokurina V.V., Kremenetskiy M.I., Krichevskij V.N., Mel’nikov S.I. Wells interference determination by permanent down-hole monitoring on base of sector modeling. Neftyanoe hozyajstvo [Oil Industry], 2012, no. 12, p. 82-85 (in Russian).
7.Mel’nikov S.I. A new way to determine permeability, skin-factors and formation pressures of comingled reservoirs based on reservoir surveillance. Inzhenernaya praktika [Engineering practice], 2012, no. 2, p. 38-43 (in Russian).
8.Morozovskij N.A., Kremeneckij M.I. New Well-test interpretation method for carbonate reservoirs with rare long fractures for field development optimization. Tezisy doklada X Vserossiyskoy naychno-tehnichesskoy konferencii «Aktual’nue problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo komplexa Rossii [Abstracts of the X all — Russian Scientific and technical conference «Actual problems of development of oil and gas complex of Russia»]. Moscow, 2014, p. 16-17.
9.Ipatov A.I., Kremeneckij M.I., Kaeshkov I.S., Klishin I.A., Solodyankin M.A., Figura E.V. Undiscovered DTS potential of horizontal well inflow profile monitoring Neftyanoe hozyajstvo [Oil Industry], 2014, no. 5, p. 96-100 (in Russian).