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2019/4
Characterization and oil-oil correlation for the Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfields based on bio-markers analysis, Kurdistan, Northern Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and AAPG, head of the Geology of Hydrocar- bon Systems Department at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. He is author of 4 monographs and more than 60 scientific publications in Russian and international perio- dicals. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru
Rebaz Abdalaziz HAMA AMIN graduated from University of Sulaimani in 2012 and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). His scientific interests are related with geochemical studies of oils and source rock samples and basin modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: Rebaz_1989sa@yahoo.com
Natalia N. KOSENKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of 4 monographs and more than 20 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: N.N.Kosenkova@gubkin.ru
Marina I. TRUNOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: mtrunova@gmail.com

Abstract: Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods are used to analyze crude oils obtained from Mil Qasim (MQ-1) and Sarqala (S-1) oilfields of south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan using different biomarkers coefficients. Biomarkers characterization are used to provide information on the source of the organic matter, depositional environment, degree of maturity, age determination of the crude oils and their correlation between each other. The used data include normal alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids distributions, terpans, hopanes, steranes and diasternes aliphatic biomarkers, the distribution of aromatic biomarkers naphthalenes, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, methyldibenzothiophenes and stable carbon isotope. The oil samples from Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfields are characterized by a low Pr/Ph ratio (< 1,0), a relatively low oleanane ratio, abundance of moderate C27 regular steranes and diasteranes, a relatively high C30 sterane index, the presence of tricyclic terpenes, relatively high dibenzothiophene / phenanthrene ratios, high CPI ratio (≥ 1,0) and high Ph/nC18 ratio. All of the above parameters indicate that the source rocks represented by calcareous marls were deposited under anoxic — reducing marine environments with type II of organic matter and were generated at moderate stage of maturity. All of the age diagnosed biomarker parameters indicate that the source of oils in Mil Qasim and Sarqala oilfield are the Lower Cretaceous formations (Balambo-Qamchuqa formations). Two samples of oil from the Mil Qasim field (MQ-1) and oil samples from the Sarkal field (S-1) show an excellent oil-oil correlation based on the comparison of biomarker characteristics.<

Index UDK: 550.4+553.98(55)

Keywords: biomarker, correlation, Iraqi Kurdistan, organic matter, oil, depositio- nal environment, maturity of the oil

Bibliography:
1. Grantham P.J., Wakefield L.L. Variations in the sterane carbon number distributions of marine source rock derived crude oils through geological time. Organic Geochemistry, 1988, vol. 12, p. 61-73.
2. Hama Amin R.A. Geochemical characterization of the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish formation speak of his high potential in the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 8 (118), p. 50-55.
3. Mohialdeen I.M.J., Hakimi M.H., Al-Beyati F.M. Geochemical and petrographic characterization of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Chia Gara Formation in Northern Iraq: palaeoenvironment and oil generation potential. Mar Pet Geol, 2013, vol. 43, p. 166–177.
4.
Killops K., Killops V. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry, second edition, Black well publishing, 2005, 393 р.
5. Osuji L.C., Antia B.C. Geochemical Implication of some Chemical Fossils as Indicators of Petroleum Source Rocks, AAPL Journal, Sci. Environ. Mgt, 2005, vol. 9, no.1, p. 45-49.
6. Peters K.E., Walters C.C., Moldowan J.M. The Biomarker Guide, Second Edition, vol. II. Biomarkers and Isotopes in Petroleum Systems and Earth History. United Kingdom at the Cambridge University Press, 2005, 684 p.
7. Shanmugam G. Significance of coniferous rain forests and related organic matter in generating commercial quantities of oil, Gippsland Basin, Australia. AAPG Bulletin, 1985, no. 69 (8), p. 1241-1254.
8. Sofer Z. Stable carbon isotope compositions of crude oils-application to source depositional environments and petroleum alteration. AAPG Bulletin, 1984, vol. 68, no. 1, p. 31-49.
9. Wang Y., Cerling T.E., Effland W.R. Stable isotope ratios of soil carbonate and soil organic matter as indicators of forest invasion of prairie near Ames, Iowa. Oecologia, 1993, no. 95, р. 3-365.
10. Waples D.W., Machihara T. Biomarkers for geologists, A practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum geology. AAPG Methods in Exploration, 1991, vol. 9, no. 91, 69 р.
11. Wan Hasiah A., Abolins P. Organic petrological and organic geochemical characterization of the Tertiary coal-bearing sequence of Batu Arang, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 1998, vol. 16, no. 4, p. 315-367.
12. Younes M.A., Philp R.P. Source Rock Characterization based on Biological Marker Distribution of Crude Oils in the Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2005, vol. 28, no. 3, p. 301-317.

2019/2
Diagenesis processes and their effect on reservoir properties of the Lower Miocene reservoirs in the Garmian block, Kurdistan, Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Kardo Sardar MOHAMMED graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2002 (B.Sc.), in 2010 (M.Sc.) in the same university, and graduated from the Gubkin State University of Oil and Gas in 2016 (M.Sc.). He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin University. His scientific interests are related to petrophy-sical analysis and reservoir modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: kardo80@yahoo.com
Marina I. TRUNOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate Professor, senior lecturer of the Department of Geology of Petroleum Systems of Gubkin University. She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of more than 20 scientific publications.
E-mail: mtrunova@gmail.com

Abstract: In the Iraqi Kurdistan, the most significant oil deposits are concentrated in the Cretaceous and lower Miocene sediments. In this paper we used data on the recently discovered Sarqala and Shakal oilfields. The Lower Miocene formations of Euphrates and Jeribe are the main target objects of the tertiary oil and gas system in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The formations are composed of carbonates with a few interbeds of evaporites of the Dhiban formation. The rocks of the studied formations are affected by a number of diagenetic processes, including dolomitization, micritization, cementation, neomorphism, leaching, compaction, styllolitization, pyritization and anhydration. The most significant of these are the processes of dolomitization, dissolution, neomorphism, cementation and compaction. The processes of dolomitization and dissolution improve the quality of reservoirs, while neomorphism, carburization and compaction have a negative effect. Fracturing plays a significant role in the increased porosity and permeability of the rocks studied, mainly in calcareous mudstone and wackestone.

Index UDK: 552.5 (419)

Keywords: diagenesis processes, reservoir properties, lower miocene forma-tions, Jerib, Dhiban, Euphrates, Kurdistan, Iraq

Bibliography:
1. Jassim S.Z., Goff J.C. Geology of Iraq. Dolin, Prague, and Moravian Museum Brno, Czech Republic, 2006, 341 p.
2. Aqrawi A.A.M., Goff J.C., Horbury A.D., Sadooni F.N. Petroleum Geology of Iraq. Scientific press Lt Po box 21, Beaconsfield, Bucks HP9 1NS, UK, 2010, 424 p.
3. Buday T., Jassim S.Z. The Regional Geology of Iraq, Tectonism, Magmatism, and Meta- morphism. State Establishment of Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation, Baghdad, Iraq, 1987, 352 p.
4. Al-Juburi A.I., McCann T., Ghazal M.M. Rekonstraktsiia istochnikov snosа dlja peschanikov miotsena Severnogo Iraka (na osnovanii petrograficheskogo analiza, analiz veshchestvennogo sostava i himii mineralov oblomochnoij sostavliajiyshchej). Geologja i geofisika, 2009, t. 50, no. 6, p. 670-690 (in Russian).
5. Al-Juboury A.L., Al-Tarif A.M., Al-Eisa M. Basin analysis of the Burdigalian and Early Langhian successions, Kirkuk Basin, Iraq. 7-In: B.C. Schreiber, S. Lugli, & M. Babel. (eds). Evaporites Through Space and Time. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2007, no. 285, p. 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP285.4
6. Bellen R.C., Dunnington H.V., Wetzel R., Morton D. Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Iraq, 1959, vol. 3C, no. 10a, 333 p.
7. Al-Ameri T.K., Zumberg J., Markarian Z.M. Hydrocarbons in the Middle Miocene Jeribe Formation Dyala Region, NE Iraq. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2011, vol. 34, no. 2, p. 199-216.
8. Evamy B.D., Shearman D.J. The development of overgrowth from echinoderm fragments in limestones. Sedimentology, 1965, vol. 5, p. 211-233.
9. Sibley D.F. The origin of common dolomite fabrics: clues from the Pliocene//Journal of Sedi- ment Research. — 1982. — Vol .52. — P. 1087-1100.
10. Longman M.W. Carbonate diagenetic textures from near surface diagenetic environments. AAPG Bulletin, 1980, vol. 64, no. 4, p. 461-487.
11. Tucker M.E., Wright V.P. Carbonate Sedimentology. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 1990, 496 p.
12. Flugel E. Microfacies analysis of limestones. Translated by K. Christenson. Berlin: Springer, 1982, 633 p.
13. Searl A. Diagenesis of the Gully Oolite (Lower Carboniferous), South Wales. Geological Journal, 1989, vol. 24, p. 275-293.
14. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004, 976 p.
15. Choquette P.W., Pray L.C. Geologic nomenclature and classification of porosity in sedimentary carbonates. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1970, vol. 54, p. 207-250.
16. Scoffin T.P. Introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks. Glasgow: Blackie, 1987, 274 p.

2015/3
Sedimentological control of the Middle Devonian deposits petroleum potential within the southern plunge of Buzuluk Depression
Geosciences

Authors: Valentina A. ZHEMCHUGOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1978. She is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is specialist in the field of reservoir sedimentology for hydrocarbon systems modeling. She is author of 4 and co-author of 2 monogfaphs and more than 80 scientific publications in national and international journals. E-mail: zem@gds.ru
Oleg M. MYATCHIN graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2011. He works as geologist at Geophysical Data Systems Ltd. He is post-graduate student of the Department of Geology and Geochemistry of Fossil Fuels of Lomonosov Moscow State University. His research interests are sedimentology and modeling of structure and properties of reservoirs. E-mail: myatchin@gds.ru
Marina I. TRUNOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1982. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She specializes in the search for oil and gas accumulations in deeply buried deposits. She is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: mtrunova@gmail.com

Abstract: Significant part of initial resources of the Buzuluk Depression is concentrated within Middle Devonian complex of its southern regions. Complex analysis of the results of macro- and microscopic core studies, seismic and well logging data made the development of the depositional reservoir models of Middle Devo- nian possible. These models became the basis for prediction of oil and gas reservoirs

Index UDK: УДК 552.143(47056:47043):551.734

Keywords: southern plunge of Buzuluk Depression, shallow marine depositional environments, Eifelian, Givetian, reservoirs, depositional reservoir model

Bibliography:
1. Bagrintseva K.I. Usloviia formirovaniia i svoistva karbonatnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza [For-ming conditions and properties of the carbonate oil and gas reservoirs]. Moscow, RGGU Publ., 1999, 285 p.
2. Zhemchugova V.A. Rezervuarnaia sedimentologiia karbonatnykh otlozhenii [Reservoir sedimentology of the carbonate deposits]. Moscow, EAGE Geomodel Ltd. Publ., 2014, 232 p.
3. Il’in V.D., Fortunatova N.K. Metody prognozirovaniia i poiskov neftegazonosnykh rifovykh kompleksov [Methods of forecasting and searching of oil-gas reef plays]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1988, 199 p.
4. Kuteev Iu.M., Savinkova L.D. State of the hydrocarbon resource base of Orenburg region. Mineral’nye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravleniie — Mineral resources of Russia. Economy and management, 2011, no .2, pp. 2-6 (in Russian).
5. Makarova S.P. Geologicheskoie stroeniie nizhne-srednedevonskih otlozhenii iugo-vostoka Orenburgskoi oblasti [Geological structure of Lower and Middle Devonian deposits of the south-east of Orenburg region]. Geologiia i ekspluatatsiia neftyanykh i gasoneftyanykh mestorozhdenii Orenburg-skoi oblasti [Geology and development of oil and oil-gas fields of Orenburg region], 1999, pp. 65-68.
6. Muromtsev V.S. Elektrometricheskaia geologiia peschanykh tel — litologicheskikh lovushek nefti i gaza [Electrometric geology of sand bodies  lithological oil and gas traps]. Leningrad, Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
7. Reineck H.-E., Singh I.B. Depositional sedimentary environments. Corr. reprint of the 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1975, 439 p. (Russ. ed.: Reinek G.-E., Singkh I.B. Obstanovki terri-gennogo osadkonakopleniia. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1981. 439 p.).
8. Selley R.C. Ancient sedimentary environments. London, 1985. 317 p. (Russ. ed.: Selli R.Ch. Drevniie obstanovki osadkonakopleniia. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1989. 294 p.).
9. Timofeev P.P. Geologiia i fatsii iurskoi uglenosnoi formatsii iuzhnoi Sibiri [Geology and facies of the Jurassic coal formation of the Southern Siberia]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969, 457 p.
10. Wilson J.L. Carbonate facies in geologic history. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1975, 471 p. (Russ. ed.: Uilson Dzh.L. Karbonatnyie fatsii v geologicheskoi istorii. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1980, 463 p.).
11. Sandstone depositional environments/ Ed. by Peter A.Scholle and Darwin Spearing. Tulsa, Oklahoma: AAPG, 1982, 410 p.