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2015/3
Development of effective national oils for air screw compressors
Technical sciences

Authors: Alena V. ANISINA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2003. Degreeseeking student of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: alena.kochenova@gmail.com
Boris P. TONKONOGOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1973. Doctor of Chemistry, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Specialist in the field of alternative motor fuels based on natural gas, lubricants and additives, including additives for alternative motor fuels. He is author of over 100 scientific and educational works. E-mail: bpt@gubkin.ru
Leonid N. BAGDASAROV graduated from the Tashkent automobile & road technical University in 1986. Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Specialist in the field of lubricants application and obtaining. He is author of 104 scientific publications. E-mail: lebage1963@mail.ru
Irina R. OBLASHHIKOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1995. Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Specialist in the field of chemistry and technology of lubricants based on vegetable raw materials. She is author of 30 scientific publications and tutorials. E-mail: i.oblashchikova@gubkin.ru

Abstract: This work investigates development of national oil for airscrew compressors with dialkylbenzene as a component that improves the viscosity-temperature properties. It was studied the effect of oils with dialkylbenzene on the basic compressor parameters. It was found that these oils could be an alternative to foreign counterparts

Index UDK: УДК 665.765, 621.89.092

Keywords: airscrew compressors, dialkylbenzenes, oil-flooded compressor, power density

Bibliography:
1. Bondarenko G.A., Zharkov P.E. Vintovye kompressory v sistemah obespechenija szhatym vozduhom [Screw compressors in the compressed air supply systems]. Sumy, 2003, 130 p.

2015/1
Perspective of using esters as a national production as bases of oils for the aircraft equipment
Technical sciences

Authors: Boris P. TONKONOGOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1973. Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Dean of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and the Environment (since 1999), Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology (since 2007). He is the author of about 100 scientific and educational works. E-mail: masla@gubkin.ru
Ksenia A. POPOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2013, postgraduate student of chairs of chemistry and technology of lubricants and himmotology. E-mail: proskochenko@mail.ru
Aida F. HURUMOVA Head of the Center of lubricants and fluids in FSUE “Scientific-Research Institute of Standardization and Unification”, Candidate of Technical Sciences. She is the author of over 50 scientific papers and 17 patents for inventions. E-mail: nio-180@inbox.ru

Abstract: To ensure reliable operation of heat-stressed gas-turbine engines (GTE) high-quality lubricants with good performance properties are required. Russian aviation uses foreign-made lubricants for GTE. There are no competitive analogues in Russia, so it important to study and to develop such lubricants. According to publications the most suitable lubricant compositions meeting the requirements for gas turbine engines operable up to 240 °C are the derivatives of esters (neopentyl polyol esters, mainly of pentaerythritol and/or trimethylol propane and mixtures of individual acids of synthetic C5-C9 combined in a specific ratio). In this regard, the aim of this work is to study synthetic lubricants based on esters derived from polyhydric alcohols (polyols) and synthetic fatty acids (SFA). The analysis of the state-of-art in the production of esters and SFA С5-С9 in Russia is presented in this review. The dependence of the properties on the structure of esters is considered, the technological level of works of receiving esters of polyols and SFA is analyzed. The most perspective esters − pentaerythritol and trimethylol propane from the point of view of the increased thermo-oxidizing stabi- lity are chosen. The results of the research expand the knowledge of the dependence of the properties on the structure of esters, the technologies of synthesis of esters of polyols and the importance of the development of the production of esters

Index UDK: 665.773.3

Keywords: esters, diesters, alcohols, fatty acids, dioctyl sebacate, thermo-stable dioctyl sebacate thermostable, gas turbine engines

Bibliography:
1. Icikson T.M. i dr. Vlijanie katalizatora na sposob poluchenija i svojstvа jefirov pentajeritrita [Effect of the catalyst on the method of preparation and properties of pentaerythritol ester]. Himija i tehnologija topliv i masel [Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils], 1975, no. 8, p. 10–12.
2. Gordon Fay H., Holt David Gary Lawton,Leta Daniel P., Krevalis Martin Anthony, Szobota John S, Sherwood-Williams Lavonde Deni, Aldrich Haven S. Schlosberg, Richard Henry. Polyol ester compositions with unconverted hydroxyl groups. Patent USA no. US5744434 (A), 1998-04-28.
3. Schaefer Thomas, Carr Dale D., Wisotsky Max J., Berlowitz Paul J. Ashcraft JR Thomas L. Technical pentaerythritol esters as lubricant base stock. Patent USA no. US5503761 (A), 1996-04-02.
4. Gash Virgil W. Esters of tetrahydroxy dineoalkyl ethers. Patent USA no. US3681440 (A), 1972-08-01.
5. Degeorge Nicholas, Carr Dale D. Synthetic lubricant base stock of monopentaerythritol and trimethylolpropane esters. Patent USA no. US4826633 (A), 1989-05-02.
6. Thomas L. Ashcraft, Jr., Paul J. Berlowitz,Max J. Wisotsky, Dale D. Carr, Thomas G. Schae-fer. Technical pentaerythritol esters as lubricant base stock. Patent USA no. 5503761, 1996-02-04.
7. Kagan L.H. i dr. Izuchenie svojstv smesej slozhnyh jefirov neopentilpoliolov. [Studying the properties of mixtures of neopentyl polyol esters]. Sb. „Trudy VNIINP”, 1978, pp.
62–66.
8.
Krylov O.V., Matyshak V.A. Promezhutochnye soedinenija i mehanizmy geterogennyh kataliticheskih reakcij. Prostejshie reakcii uglevodorodov, spirtov, kislot [Intermediates and mechanisms of heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The simplest reaction of hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids]. Uspehi himii [Achievements of chemistry], 1995, no. 1, p. 66.
9. Hurumova A.F, Janovskij L.S., Skibin V.A., Gorjachev V.V., Nikolaev A.V., Miheichev P.A., Kovba L.V., Kashtan M.I., Poljakov S.Ju., Sereda V.A., Vatagin A.I., Petrov P.G., Stoljarov I.Je., Rapinchuk A.G., Jakovlev N.N. Smazochnoe maslo dlja reduktorov letatel’nyh apparatov [Lubricating oil for gearboxes aircrafts]. Patent RF, no. 2322481, 2008.
10. Jernst Uve, Gubish Ditmar, Bjushken Vil’frid. Sposob poluchenija slozhnyh efirov karbonovyh kislot [A method of producing carboxylic acid esters]. Patent RF, no. 2283299, 2006.
11. Knebel’ Joahim. Sposob poluchenija efirov (met)akrilovoj kisloty [A method for producing (meth)acrylic acid]. Patent RF, no. 2515985, 2014.
12. Mamarasulova Z.V., Gromova V.V. Osnova sinteticheskogo smazochnogo masla. Patent RF, no. 2361904, 2009.
13. Lakeev S.N., Karchevskij S.G., Majdanova I.O., Aleksashev V.I. Issledovanie okislenija vysshih al’fa-olefinov s cel’ju poluchenija sinteticheskih zhirnyh kislot [Investigation of oxidation higher alpha-olefins to produce synthetic fatty acids]. Material mezhregional’noj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii „Innovacionnye processy v oblasti obrazovanija, nauki i proizvodstva”. [Innovative processes in the field of education, science and industry]. Nizhnekamsk, 2004.
14. Dinces A.I., Druzhinina A.P. Sinteticheskie smazochnye masla [Synthetic lubricating oils]. Moscow, 1958, 350 p.
15. Brunshtejn B.A. i dr. Proizvodstvo vysshih spirtov — komponentov plastifikatorov [Production of higher alcohols  components of plasticizers]. Moscow, 1970, 30 p.
16. Loktev S.M Neftepererabotka i neftehimija [Refining and Petrochemicals]. Moscow, 1980, 31 p.
17. Mamarasulova Z.V. Razrabotka tehnologicheskih osnov processa termicheskoj eterifikacii neopentilpoliolov i optimizacija struktury slozhnyh jefirov kak bazovyh aviacionnyh masel [Development of technological bases of process heat esterification neopentyl polyol and optimization of the structure of esters as base aircraft’s oils]. St. Petersburg, 2012, 128 p.
18. Janovskij L.S., Dubovkin N.F., Galimov F.M. i dr. Inzhenernye osnovy aviacionnoj him-motologii [Engineering bases of an aviation himmotologiya]. Kazan, 2005, 714 p.
19. Gunderson R.S., Hart A.V. Sinteticheskie smazochnye materialy i zhidkosti [The synthetic lubricant fluid]. Moscow, 1965, 1984 p.
20. Marketingovoe issledovanie rynka sinteticheskih zhirnyh kislot [Market research in synthetic fatty acids]. Moscow, 2011.
21. Bingnan Huang, John T. Gupton, Keith C. Hansen, et al. Synthetic communications, 1996, no. 26 (1), pp. 165–178.
22.
Gorge W. Kabalka, Narayana Chatla, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar et al. Synthetic communications, 1990, pp. 1617–1623.
23.
Schlosberg R.H., Chu J.W., Knudsen G.A., Suciu E.N. and Aldrich H.S. High stability esters for synthetic lubricant applications. Lubrication Engineering, 2001, pp. 21–26.
24.
Vakakura M., Sato G. Journal of the Japanese Petroleum Institute, 1981, no. 24 (6), pp. 383–392.
25.
Gajfutdinova Je.K., Beresnev V.V., Petuhov A.A. Perspektivnye himicheskie tehnologii i materialy [Perspective chemical technologies and materials]. Sb. statej Mezhd. nauchno-tehnicheskoj konferencii [Proc. of the Int. Scientific and Technical Conference]. Perm, 1998, p. 142 (In Russian).

2014/4
Using safe process oils produced by deasphalting in tire-tread compounds
Technical sciences

Authors: Dmitrij А. KOZHEVNIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2011. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: d.a.kozhevnikov@yandex.ru
Boris P. TONKONOGOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1973. Doctor of Chemistry, Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Specialist in the field of alternative motor fuels based on natural gas, lubricants and additives, including additives for alternative motor fuels. He is author of over 100 scientific and educational works.E-mail:bpt@gubkin.ru
Vladimir A. OS’MUSHNIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2001. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: Ocmushnikov.VA@gazprom-neft.ru
Anzhela F. KARIMOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2013. Postgraduate of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of lubricants and Chemmotology of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas.E-mail: angela.f.karimova@gmail.com

Abstract: To improve the environmental safety of tires the use of plasticizers derived from extracts of selective treatment by propane de-asphalting in commercial tire stocks for passenger cars was studied. Comparative tests with commercial samples of environmentally friendly oils were carried out. It is shown that plasticizers obtained by propane de-asphalting are flexible in processing rubber and possess better physical and mechanical properties in comparison with control samples. Thus, the presented plasticizer is a promising alternative to aromatic oils. This product allows reducing the impact on the environment and contributes to the expansion of the product line of domestic agents

Index UDK: 678.8

Keywords: petroleum plasticizers, rubber softening agents, de-asphalting of lubricant oils, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tire rubber

Bibliography:
1. Null V. Safe Process Oils for Tires with Low Environmental Impact. Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, 1999, no. 12, pp. 799-805.
2. Hesin A.I., Skudatin M.E., Ushmodin V.N. Carcinogenic risk of tires. Nacional’naja bezopasnost’ I geopolitika Rossii. [National Security and Geopolitics of Russia], 2003, no. 10-11, pp. 51-52 (in Russian).
3. Montague P. Tire dust. Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly. Electronic Edition, 1995,no. 439. Available athttp://www.ejnet.org/rachel/rehw439.htm (Accessed 5 May 2014).
4. Information bulletin „Syr’e I materially shinnoj promyshlennosti” [Raw materials of tire industry]. Institut shinnoj promyshlennosti [Institute of tire industry], 2011, р. 194 (in Russian).
5. Markova L.M. Issledovanie produktov pererabotki nefti kak plastifikatorov kauchukov i rezin. Cand, Diss. [Study of refined petroleum products as plasticizers for rubbers. Cand, Diss.]. Moscow, 1964.
6. Rabinovich V.Ju. Рoluchenie masel-plastifikatorov dlja kauchukov i rezin razlichnogo naznachenija. Cand, Diss. [Obtaining of oil-plasticizers for rubbers different purposes. Cand, Diss.]. Moscow, 1975.
7. Bowman I., Da Via M., Pattnelli M. E., Tortoreto P. The Influence of Non-Toxic Blender Oil on SBR Perfomances. [Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe], 2004, no. 01-02, pp. 31-36.
8. Kuta A., Hrdlicka Z., Voldanova J., Brejcha J., Pokorny J., Plitz J. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Rubbers with Standart Oils and Ois with Low Content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. KautschukGummiKunststoffe, 2010, no. 04, pp. 120-122.
9. Flanigan С., Beyer L., Klekamp D., Rohweder D., Haakenson D. Using bio-based plasticizers, alternative rubber. Rubber & Plastics News, 2013, February, 11, pp. 15-19.
10. Tonkonogov B.P., Bagdasarov L.N., Kozhevnikov D.A., Karimova A.F. Separation of solvent extracts using liquid propane to obtain petroleum plasticizers. Himija i tehnologija topliv i masel [Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils], 2013, no. 5, pp. 3-6.
11. Petchkaew A., Sahakaro K., Noordermeer J.W.M. — Petroleum-based Safe Process Oils in NR, SBR and their Blends: Study on Unfilled Compounds. Part I. Oil Characteristics and Solubility Aspects. KautschukGummiKunststoffe, 2013, no. 04, pp. 43-47.
12. Bergmann C., Trimbach J., Haase-Held M., Seidel A. Consequences of European Directive 2005/69/EC for Tire Industry. Kautschuk Gummi Kunststoffe, 2011, no. 10, pp. 25-35.

2014/3
Study of thermo-oxidative stability of liquids for step-by-step hydroshift gear and stepless gear
Oil and gas processing, chemistry of oil and gas

Authors: Maria I. YAGODA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2009 and received Master’s Degree in 2011 in Engineering and Technology in the field of Chemical Engineering of Fuel and Gas. Currently she is postgraduate student of the Department of Chemistry and Engineering of Lubricants and Chemmotology specializing in chemical technology of fuels and high-energy substances. E-mail: yagodamasha@mail.ru
Leonid N. BAGDASAROV graduated from Tashkent Motor-Road Institute, speciali- zing in „Automobiles and Automobile Industry”. He is Associate Professor, Candidate of Technical Sciences. In 1988 he complete postgraduate course of studies at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas and defended his thesis „Development of Working-Conservation Oils for Worm Gears” (1991). He is author of 104 publications and holder of 14 patents. E-mail: lebage1963@mail.ru
Boris P. TONKONOGOV was born in 1951. He graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1973. He is Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department Chemistry and Engineering of Lubricants and Chemmotology at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. His research interests include obtaining of alternative motor fuels based on natural gas, production and application of lubricants and additives, including those for alternative motor fuels. He is author of over 100 scientific works, inventions, training and teaching aids. E-mail: bpt@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The Russian fleet of vehicles with automatic transmission is growing very rapidly. In this regard, the task of developing oils for automatic transmissions based on domestic raw materials is becoming very urgent. We studied the low-viscosity base oils of API Group III to determine their applicability for automatic gear to meet present-day requirements. Comparative testing of ATF (automatic transmission fluid) samples showed that oils prepared using domestic LUKOIL VHVI 4 (isomerization product of wax concentrates) as a base oil are of high quality and can be used both in hydro-mechanical transmissions requiring oils of DEXRON®-VI level and stepless transmissions. At the same time the oils show highthermo-oxidative stability, excellent low temperature pumpability and excellent viscosity-temperature properties

Index UDK: УДК 665.6

Keywords: thermal stability, fluid for stepless gearboxes (automatic transmission), continuously variable transmission (CVT), ATF, base oil of API group III, Yubase 4, LUKOIL VHVI 4

Bibliography:
1.Sborka i lokalizatsiya inomarok v Rossii: marketingovyy otchet, sentyabr’ 2013. Analiti-cheskoe agentstvo AVTOSTAT, р. 63.
2.Topliva, smazochnye materialy, tekhnicheskie zhidkosti. Assortiment i primenenie: Spravochnik. Pod red. V.M. Shkol’nikova. M.: Izdatel’skiy tsentr „Tekhinform”, 1999, р. 596.
3.Automatic Transmission Fluid Qualification Program and Procedures. Dexron®-VI. General Motors. Pontiac, Michigan, USA, 2005, 39 p.
4.Tim Sullivan. Lube Report. Lubes’n’Greases Magazine and Lubricants Industry Sourcebook are published by LNG Publishing Co., Inc. [Elektronnyy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.imake-news.com/lng/e_article000384801.cfm?x=b11,0,w.
5.Specification Handbook. Afton Chemical. [Elektronnyy resurs] https://www.aftonchemi-cal.com/ Lists/Brochure/Attachments/40/Specification_Handbook.pdf
6.Automatically First. Afton Chemical. Bracknell, UK, 2011, р. 81.
7.James Dickey The History of ATF, 1939-2006 [Elektronnyy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.lifeautomotive.com/pdfs/history_of_atf.pdfprolonged.
8.Automatic Transmission Fluid Oxidation Testing. Intertek laboratory. [Elektronnyy resurs]. Rezhim dostupa: http://www.intertek.com/automotive/atf/oxidation/
9.Design practices — passenger car automatic transmissions. 4th ed. SAE International.
10.Standard Test Method for Corrosiveness and Oxidation Stability of Hydraulic Oils, Aircraft Turbine Engine Lubricants, and Other Highly Refined Oils — ASTM International, 2004.
11.Tekhnicheskoe opisanie zhidkosti TOTAL FLUIDMATIC CVT MV. [Elektronnyy resurs]. http://www.totaloil.com.au/pages/content/nt0001302a.pdf

2013/1
Study of basic regularities of application of various reagents - sinks for hydrogen sulfide scavanger for commercial production of fuel oil with improved environmental properties
Oil and gas processing, chemistry of oil and gas

Authors: Victoria A. DOROGOCHINSKAYA graduated from Grozny Oil Institute named after Academician M.D. Millionshtchikov. She is Ph.D., associate professor of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is author of 140 scientific papers and 16 patents in the field of oil and chemmotology. Е-mail: dvia@list.ru
Boris P. TONKONOGOV graduated Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1973 and in 2006 he defended his doctoral thesis. He is Doctor of Science, Head of the Department of Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants and Chemmotology, Dean of the Faculty of Chemical and Environmental Engineering. He is author of over 100 scientific and educational works in the field of oil and chemmotology. Е-mail: bpt@gubkin.ru
Olga V. ROMANOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2010. She is a postgraduate student. She has two publications in industry journals and presentations at 5 conferences. Е-mail: olenka_sysoeva@mail.ru

Abstract: The main types of hydrogen sulfide scavengers available on the Russian market are considered. The study of the efficiency of nine hydrogen sulfide scavengers with different chemical composition is carried out. The residual hydrogen sulfide content after treatment with straight scavengers of fuel oil, visbreaking gas oil, and their mixtures in different ratios was estimated. The high efficiency of triazine scavengers is shown. The negative impact of some scavengers on the figure of water soluble acids and alkali is observed. The influence of the triazine scavengers as surface-active substances on the stability of the various components of fuel oil is studied. The triazines  based scavenger is recommended for commercial use being safer and more efficient in its composition.

Index UDK: 665.637

Keywords: hydrogen sulfide scavengers, chemical composition, residual hydrogen sulfide, water-soluble acids and alkali

Bibliography:
1. Tehnicheskij reglament «О trebovanjaih k avtomobil'nomu i aviacionnomu benzinu, dizel'nomu i sudovomu toplivu, toplivu dlja reaktivnyh dvigatelej i topochnomu mazutu», utverzhden Postanovleniem Pravitel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 27 fevralja 2008.  No. 118.
2. Ljapina N.K. Himija i fiziko-himija seraorganicheskih soedinenij neftjanyh distilljatov. – M.: Nauka, 1984. – 120 s.
3. Manovjan A.K. Tehnologija pervichnoj pererabotki nefti i gaza. – M.: Himija, 2001. – 586 s.
4. Black and Veatch/Lawrence F. Drbal, Patricia G. Boston, Kayla L. Westra, R. Bruce Erickson//Power Plant engineering. – Springer Selence  Business Media, Inc., 1996. – 879 s.
5. Mike Nicholson. Additives improve fuel oil properties//Bunker world – 2005. – No. 8. – P. 12–14.
6. Sovremennoe sostojanie proizvodstva tovarnogo mazuta s uluchshennymi jekologicheskimi svojstvami/ T.K. Vetrova, V.A. Morozov, V.A. Dorogochinskaja, O.V. Sysoeva//Aktual'nye problemy razvitija neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii: Sb. st. VIII Vserossijskoj nauchno-tehnicheskoj konferencii (Moskva, 1–3 fevralya 2010). – Moskva, 2010. – S. 261, 344.