Статьи

Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Possibilities of applying acoustic emission sensors for monitoring general corrosion of carbon steel with nitrogen bubbling through working environment
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Marina L. MEDVEDEVAgraduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1973. She is Doctor of Technical Sciences, full professor of the Department Metal Science and Non-Metallic Materials at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is a specialist in the field of corrosion and protection of equipment of oil and gas industry. She is author of more than 80 scientific papers. E-mail: marmed04@mail.ru
Margarita D. RATANOVAis graduate student of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Since 2012 she has been a researcher of the Department of Metal Science and Non-Metal Materials. E-mail: rita-ratanova@rambler.ru

Abstract: Possibility of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of carbon steel general corrosion during nitrogen barbotage through environment was investigated. The source of noise was similar to the main source of AE-signal during corrosion (cathodic hydrogen), i.e. nitrogen barbotage through environment. Corrosion of Steel 20 was investigated in electrolyte-solutions with pH 1,05,5 with and without nitrogen barbotage. Corrosion rate was determined by the gravimetric method. Parameters of AE signals were registered from GT200sensors using A-Line 32D (PCI-8) 4.98. multichannel system It was shown that there is a principal possibility of AE-corrosion monitoring even while bubbling nitrogen through an environment. It is possible to register the change in corrosion mechanism by means of AE-monitoring. These results can be used at refineries in corrosion monitoring systems

Index UDK: УДК 669.018.8.001; 534.8.081.7

Keywords: corrosion, acoustic emission, signal, corrosion environments

Bibliography:
1. Online resource — http://protectcor.narod.ru/
2. Investigation of possibilities of acoustic emission monitoring in relation to the problems of corrosion monitoring equipment crude oil distillation plants. Ch. I. Registration the general corrosion. M.L. Medvedevа, A.K. Prygaev, E.A. Markov, Y.S. Popkov, M.V. Chernyh. Corrosion: Materials, protection, 2012, no. 12, p. 36.
3. Medvedeva M.L., Ratanova M.D. Identifying main source of acoustic emission under general corrosion of carbon steel. Proceedings of the State University of Oil and Gas named after I.M. Gubkin, 2014, no. 2, p. 94–102.
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GOST 9.908-85 4. Unified system of corrosion and ageing protection. Metals and alloys. Methods for determination of corrosion and corrosion resistance indices.
5. Medvedevа M.L. Corrosion and protection equipment in the processing of oil and gas. M.: Federal State Unitary Enterprise Moscow, Oil and Gas State University of Oil and Gas. I.M. Gubkin, 2005, p. 312.

Identifying main source of acoustic emission under general corrosion of carbon steel
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Marina L. MEDVEDEVA graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1973. She is Doctor of Technical Sciences, full professor of the Department Metal Science and Non-Metallic Materials at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is a specialist in the field of corrosion and protection of equipment of oil and gas industry. She is author of more than 80 scientific papers. E-mail: marmed04@mail.ru
Margarita D. RATANOVA is a student of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Since 2012 she has been a member of the Department Metal Science and Non-Metallic Materials.E-mail: rita-ratanova@rambler.ru

Abstract: The need to develop and improve corrosion monitoring systems requires consi- dering the possibility of using acoustic emission monitoring systems to control general corrosion of crude oil distillation plants. The aim of the work was to iden-tify the source of acoustic emission during corrosion of carbon steel at rates close to those in operating conditions of these facilities. It was found that under carbon steel corrosion the main source of acoustic emission is hydrogen generated during cathodic reaction. The AE method can be considered as the basis for the creation of corrosion monitoring systems designed to control on-line the corrosion of the equipment and piping lines of the heads of the crude distillation unit

Index UDK: УДК 669.018.8.001; 534.8.081.7

Keywords: corrosion, acoustic emission, signals, corrosion media

Bibliography:
1. Alyakritsky A.L., Popkov Y.S., Sorokin E.Y., Terent’ev D.A. Determination of the pitting corrosion’ depth and Acoustic emission control of corrosion development. Himicheskaja tehnika, 2008, no. 8, p. 8-10 (in Russian).
2. Spravochnik himika. T. 3. Himicheskoe ravnovesie i kinetika. Svojstva rastvorov. Jelektrodnye process [Handbook for chemist. V.3. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Properties of fluids. Electrode processes]. Chemistry, M., Leningrad, 1964, 1008 
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3.Pollock A.A. Acoustic Emission Capabilities and Applications in Monitoring Corrosion. Corrosion Monitoring in Industrial Plants Using Nondestructive Testing and Electrochemical Methods. ASTM STP 908, G.C. Moran and Р. Labine, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1986, p. 30
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4. Baranov V.M., Gubin
а T.V. Primenenie akusticheskoj jemissii dlja issledovanija i kontrolja korrozionnyh processov [Application of acoustic emission for research and monitoring of corrosion processes]: Textbook. MEPI, 1990, 72 p.
5. Lublinsky E.Y. Elektrohimicheskaja zashhita ot korrozii [Electrochemical corrosion protection]. Moscow
: Metallurgy, 1987, 97 p.

Determining hazard category of asphalt and paraffin deposits (fields of Udmurtia).
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Lyudmila V. IVANOVA graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1983. She is Associate Professor of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. She is author of more than 80 scientific papers in the field of petroleum chemistry. E-mail: ivanova.@gubkin.ru
Veronica K. MILLER graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas Master’s program in 2010. She works as engineer of LLC “Izhevsk Oil Research Center”. She is currently working for her candidate of sciences degree at the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: VKMiller@udmurtneft.ru
Vladimir N. KOSHELEV born in 1953. He graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1975. He is First Vice Rector for Academic Affairs, Head of the Department of Organic Chemistry and Petroleum Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is author of over 280 scientific papers in the field of organic and petroleum chemistry. E-mail: koshelev.v@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The composition of organic and mineral components of asphalt and paraffin deposits (APS) of the fields of Udmurtia is identified. The hazard category of deposits relating to oil wastes produced at all stages of production, transportation and treatment. It is shown that the total factor severity is significantly higher with the environmental hazard of all components of the organic phase deposits taken into account versus the «simplified» approach.

Index UDK: 502.13

Keywords: hazard category, oil wastes, asphalt, resin and paraffin deposits, method of calculation to determine hazard category

Bibliography:
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7. Opredelenie klassa opasnosti nefteshlamov. V.V. Ermakov, A.N. Suho-nosova, D.E. Bykov, D.A. Prirozhkov. Jekologija i promyshlennost’ Rossii, 2008, no. 7, pp. 14
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Fire/explosion control system for gas supplied facilities
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Mikhail S. ERSHOV was born in 1952. He graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1979. He is Head of the Department of Theoretical Electrical Engineering and Electrification of Oil and Gas Industry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Doctor of Technical Sciences, full professor. He is author of more than 120 publications on the reliability and stability of power supply systems of oil and gas industry. E-mail: msershov@yandex.ru
Oksana Y. SOLYONAYA graduated from the State Higher Educational Institution Donetsk National Technical University (Faculty of Electrical Engineering ) in 2007. She is postgraduate student of the Department of Electric Power Supply of Industrial Enterprises and cities of Donetsk National Technical University. She is author of over 20 publications on the prevention of fire hazards in electrical networks, development of methods for safety assessment of production facilities. Е-mail: oksana_solenaya@i.ua

Abstract: The risk of fire and explosion hazards at facilities with gas and electric power systems is considered. The analysis of existing control systems allowed to identify their weaknesses and ways of improvement. A new system of fire/explosion control for facilities with electric and gas power supply is proposed, the features of its operation are considered.

Index UDK: 614.841.332 (838.001.18)

Keywords: gas supply, electricity supply, short circuit, overload, current leakage, sparking, fire and explosion safety

Bibliography:
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2. Bruschlinsky N.N. World fire statistics. N.N. Bruschlinsky, J.R. Hall, S.V. Sokolov, I.P. Wagner. Report no. 17 Center of fire statistics of CTIF, 2012, 64 р.
3. Lehtman І.І. Prognozuvannja ta poperedzhennja vibuhіv metanopovіtrjanoї sumіshі v gazifіkovanih primіshhennjah: Avtoref. dis. kand. tehn. nauk. Donec’k, 2012, 21 р.
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5. GOST R 51330.10-99. Jelektrooborudovanie vzryvozashhishhennoe. Iskrobezopasnaja jelektricheskaja cep’. M.: Izd-vo standartov, 2001, 120 р.
6. GOST 12.1.004-91. Pozharnaja bezopasnost’. Obshhie trebovanija. M.: Izd-vo standartov, 1992, 77 р.
7. GOST 12.1.044-89. Pozharovzryvoopasnost’ veshhestv i materialov. Nomenklatura pokazatelej i metody ih opredelenija. M.: Izd-vo standartov, 1989, 99 р.
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Pneumatic Barrier as Universal Method of Oil Spill in the Waters of Russian Oil Fileds
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Irina S. KULIKOVA was awarded the degree of Master of Engineering and Technology at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2009. She is Associate Professor of the Department of Machines and Equipment for Oil and Gas Industry, co-author of 15 publications in the field of oil spill response and field equipment, including 3 articles, 2 books, 10 abstracts of scientific and technical conferences. E-mail: irinaskulikova@gmail.com

Abstract: The applicability of a pneumatic barrier for containment of oil spills in the waters of the oil fields of Russia were studied for the first time in the national practice. A pneumatic barrier is a unique technology, the application of which in Russia can significantly reduce the damage to the environment by reducing the time oil spill. The advantages of this method were evaluated by comparing the situation models of oil spill localization by a pneumatic barrier with the booms conventional in Russia. The original schemes of localizing spills by combined methods of pneumatic barrier and sorbents, as well as pneumatic barrier and controlled burning were considered.

Index UDK: 627.372

Keywords: oil spill localization, boom, pneumatic barrier, sorbents, controlled burning

Bibliography:
1. Kozlitin A.M., Popov A.I., Kozlitin P.A. Kolichestvennyy analiz riska vozmozhnykh razlivov nefti i nefteproduktov//Upravlenie promyshlennoy i ekologicheskoy bezopasnost'yu proizvodstvennykh ob'ektov na osnove riska: mezhdunarodnyy nauchnyy sbornik: – Saratov: SRO «Rossiyskaya ekologicheskaya akademiya», 2005. – S. 135–151.
2. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 21.08.613 № 613 «Osnovnye trebovaniya k razrabotke planov po preduprezhdeniyu i likvidatsii avariynykh razlivov nefti i nefteproduktov» (v red. Postanovleniya Pravitel'stva RF ot 15.04.2002 N 240). «Sobranie zakonodatel'stva RF», 22.04.2002, Nо. 16, st. 1569.
3. RD 153-39.4-074-01. Instruktsiya po likvidatsii avariy i povrezhdeniy na podvodnykh perekhodakh magistral'nykh nefteproduktoprovodov. Utv. OAO «AKTTNN «Transnefteprodukt». – M., 2001. [Elektronnyy resurs] URL: http://www.complexdoc.ru (data obrashcheniya: 03.03.2012).
4. RD 153-39.4-114-01. Pravila likvidatsii avariy i povrezhdeniy na magistral'nykh nefteprovodakh Utv. OAO «AK «Transneft'»». – M., 2002 g. [Elektronnyy resurs] URL: http://www.complex-doc.ru (data obrashcheniya: 03.03.2012).
5. Tekhnika i tekhnologii lokalizatsii i likvidatsii avariynykh razlivov nefti i nefteproduktov: Sprav./I.A. Meritsidi, V.N. Ivanovskiy, A.N. Prokhorov i dr. Pod red. I.A. Meritsidi. – SPb.: NPO «Professional», 2008.
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7. Narita S., Kanada S., Shimoda H. A new oil-recovery method for broken ice conditions. Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth Arctic and Marine Oilspill Program (AMOP) Technical Seminar. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. June 12–14, 2001.
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Preparation of water for reservoir pressure maintenance system of oil fields
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Vladimir D. NAZAROV is Ph.D., professor of Ufa State Oil Technical University (UGNTU). E-mail: aqvita@mail.ru
Maxim V. NAZAROV is Ph.D., director of the innovation firm AKVITA (UGNTU). He is currently working on his doctoral thesis at UGNTU. E-mail: aqvita@mail.ru
Vladimir Y. RAZUMOV is postgraduate student of Ufa State Oil Technical University. E-mail: dirrek3@gmail.com

Abstract: Negative influence of oil on water bodies, including the sources of drinking water is established. The reason for this is the primitive preparation of fresh and bottom water for reservoir pressure maintenance, i.e. by mechanical methods only. A technological solution to treat fresh water and bottom water with the use of innovative equipment for reservoir pressure maintenance systems is proposed.

Index UDK: 628.174

Keywords: reservoir pressure maintenance, oily water treatment, electrochemical skimmer, magnetic separator, hydrophobic filter

Bibliography:
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7.
Gigienicheskie trebovanija k ohrane, poverhnostnyh vod. SanPin 2.1.980-00.
8.
Orientirovochnye dopustimye urovni (ODU) himicheskih vewestv v vode vodnyh ob#ektov hozjajstvenno-pit’evogo i kul’turno-bytovogo vodopol’zovanija GN 2.1.5.1316-03.
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SNiP 2.04.02–84. Vodosnabzhenie. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija. — M. Gosstroj Rossii. — 2004. — 128 p.
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Method of determining design of safety in accordance with international standards and provision by means of APCS
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Anatoly V. KARMANOV was born in 1947. Не graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1970. In 1975 he completed his postgraduate study. He is Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Automation of Production Processes of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is author of more than 30 scientific papers related to ensuring the reliability and safety of complex technical systems in the oil and gas industry. E-mail: abkar2007@yandex.ru
Sergei P. PETRUSHENKO was born in 1967. Graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1991. Since 2005 he worked in the leading positions in the industry: Chief Engineer of the project of OOO “Gazavtomatika”, Technical Director OOO “RusGazAvtomatika”, Director of OOO “RusGazAvtomatika”, organizing the work and creating systems of automation in gas production and gas processing industries. Since 2011 he has been Managing Director of the “Group of Companies “RusGasEngineering”. E-mail: biblioteka@gubkin.ru
Andrei V. ROMANOV was born in 1981. He graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2002. From 2007, he worked in the industry as: Senior Project Engineer of OOO “RusGazAvtomatika”, Technical Director of OOO “RusGazAvtomatika”, organizing the work and creating systems of automation in gas production and gas processing industries. Since 2011 he has been Deputy Managing Director of the “Group of Companies “RusGasEngineering”. E-mail: biblioteka@gubkin.ru
Vyacheslav A. SHEVTSOV was born in 1939. He graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute named after S. Ordzhonikidze in 1965. In 1973 he completed a postgraduate course at the “Neftegaz” National Research Institute. He is Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Automation of Production Processes of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, author of more than 40 scientific papers related to modeling, reliability and safety of complex technological systems in the oil and gas industry. E-mail: shevcov_v_a@mail.ru

Abstract: A method for determining the basic design of safety protection systems that make up the APCS is proposed. A method of designing these systems to ensure acceptable risk of technological processes in accordance with the requirements of IEC 61508 is also described. These methods are based on a certain single-step algorithm, and are intended for engineering calculations in the design of control systems.

Index UDK: 681.5

Keywords: safety, risk, security system, emergency protection system, layers of protection, reducing the risk factor, safety integrity level

Bibliography:
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5. RD 03-496-02. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po ocenke uwerba ot avarij na opasnyh proizvodstvennyh ob’ektah. Postanovlenie Federal'nyj Gornyj i Promyshlennyj Nadzor Rossii, 2002.
6. Mezhdunarodnyj standart MJeK 61508 «Funkcional'naja bezopasnost' sistem jelektricheskih, jelektronnyh, programmiruemyh jelektronnyh svjazannyh s bezopasnost'ju», prinjatyj v Rossii 01.06.2008 g. v kachestve GOST R MJeK 61508, Standartinform, Moskva, 2008.
7. Mezhdunarodnyj standart MJeK 61511 «Funkcional'naja bezopasnost': Pribornye sistemy bezopasnosti dlja sektora promyshlennyh processov».
8. Fedorov Ju.N. Osnovy postroenija ASU TP vzryvoopasnyh proizvodstv. – M.: «Sinteg», 2006.
9. Vychislitel'nyj algoritm i rezul'taty rascheta pokazatelej bezopasnosti tehnologicheskogo ob’ekta s sistemoj protivoavarijnoj zawity/A.V. Karmanov, V.A. Shevcov, K.P. Shershukova, S.P. Petrushenko S.P. – M.: Avtomatizacija, telemehanizacija i svjaz' v neftjanoj promyshlennosti, 2011. – № 5.
10. Karmanov A.V., Shershukova K.P., Teljuk A.S. Programmnyj modul' rascheta harakteristik vzaimodejstvija tehnologicheskogo ob’ekta s sistemoj protivoavarijnoj zawity. – M.: Avtomatizacija, telemehanizacija i svjaz' v neftjanoj promyshlennosti, 2011. – № 9.

The system of indicators to assess the functioning of emergency protection
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Xenia P. SHERSHUKOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2010. She is a PhD student of the Department of Automation of Production Processes of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Аuthor of 3 scientific papers in the field of industrial safety. E-mail: sherksu@mail.ru
Anton S. TELUK was born in 1988. Не graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2011. He is a Ph.D. student of the Department of Automation of Production Processes of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: _ant_@inbox.ru

Abstract: The paper proposes a system of indicators to assess the performance of emergency shutdown devices (ESD), and to determine the influence of the ESD on the functioning of the process. A mathematical model describing the interaction of technological object and ESD to calculate metrics is proposed. On the basis of this model we developed a program with which the system performance was calculated and analyzed

Index UDK: 681.5

Keywords: security, system of shutdown protection, safety indicators, coefficient of risk reduction, safety integrity level, shutdown of facility, Markovian process

Bibliography:
1. Federal'nyj zakon № 116-FZ. O promyshlennoj bezopasnosti opasnyh proizvodstvennyh ob’ektov. Оpublikovano: v «RG» – Federal'nyj vypusk № 3831 27.07.2005.
2. GOST R MJeK 61508. Funkcional'naja bezopasnost' sistem jelektricheskih, jelektronnyh, programmiruemyh jelektronnyh svjazannyh s bezopasnost'ju. – M.: Standartinform, 2008.
3. Mezhdunarodnyj standart MEK 61511. Funkcional'naja bezopasnost': Pribornye sistemy bezopasnosti dlja sektora promyshlennyh processov, 2004 (ne izdavalsja na russkom jazyke).
4. Fedorov Ju.N. Spravochnik inzhenera ASU TP: proektirovanie i razrabotka. – M.: Infra-Inzhenerija, 2008.
5. Makdonal'd D. Promyshlennaja bezopasnost', ocenivanie riska i sistemy avarijnogo ostanova. – M.: OOO «Gruppa IDT», 2007.
6. Karmanov A.V., Shershukova K.P. Model' vzaimodejstvija tehnologicheskogo ob’ekta s sistemoj protivoavarijnoj zawity. – M.: Avtomatizacija, telemehanizacija i svjaz' v neftjanoj promyshlennosti. – 2010. – № 12.
7. Vychislitel'nyj algoritm i rezul'taty rascheta pokazatelej bezopasnosti tehnologicheskogo ob’ekta s sistemoj protivoavarijnoj zawity/A.V. Karmanov, V.A. Shevcov, K.P. Shershukova, S.P. Petrushenko//Avtomatizacija, telemehanizacija i svjaz' v neftjanoj promyshlennosti. – 2011. – № 5.
8. Karmanov A.V., Shershukova K.P., Teljuk A.S. Programmnyj modul' rascheta harakteristik vzaimodejstvija tehnologicheskogo ob’ekta s sistemoj protivoavarijnoj zawity. – M.: Avtomatizacija, telemehanizacija i svjaz' v neftjanoj promyshlennosti. – 2011. – № 9.

Personal protection from adverse effects of arc welding
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Victor N. SOROKIN graduated from the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School in 1970; he is Ph.D., assistant professor of the Department of Welding and Monitoring Oil and Gas Facilities at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. He is author and coauthor of more than 40 scientific papers, including six teaching aids. E-mail: svarka@gubkin.ru
Oleg E. KAPUSTIN graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1982 specializing in “Chemical Engineering, and equipment manufacturing”. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Head of the Department Welding and Monitoring Oil and Gas Facilities at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. Member of the section of welding, diagnostics, corrosion protection and repair technologies of “NTS OAO Gazprom” and a member of the editorial board of “Mechanical Engineering” journal. He has published over 50 scientific papers and holds 9 patents. E-mail: svarka@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The article presents the factors affecting the functional decline of the visual system of welders. The possibility of providing them with adequate medical care for the prevention and the preservation of their vocational longevity is shown.

Index UDK: 621.791.75.01:537.523

Keywords: brightness of arc, light load, emission spectrum, personal protection, oxidative stress, vocational longevity, monitoring.

Bibliography:

Using computer technology for psychological support of managers and specialists of gas transmission companies
Industrial and environmental safety, occupational safety and health

Authors: Natalia M. PAVLOVA is postgraduate student of the Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: natikpavova@yandex.ru
Maria V. IVANOVA is Ph.D., associate professor of the Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: biblioteka@gubkin.ru
Alla T. VOLOKHINA is Ph.D., senior lecturer of the Department of Industrial Safety and Environmental Protection at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas. E-mail: biblioteka@gubkin.ru
Bogdan S. ZAYATS is Ph.D., Deputy. He is Chief Engineer for Occupational and Industrial Safety, Head of Occupational Health and Safety OOO “Gazprom transgaz Samara”. E-mail: biblioteka@gubkin.ru

Abstract: Professionally meaningful qualities of managers and specialists of the main transport facilities were estimated with the help of psycho-diagnostic tests. The possibility of using an automated system to evaluate the vocational aptitude of managers and specialists of OOO «Gazprom transgaz Samara» was considered with the aim of ensuring the safety of their production activities.

Index UDK: 658.382.3:622.289

Keywords: professionally meaningful qualities, psychodiagnostic test methods, method of multidimensional scaling, vocational aptitude

Bibliography: