Articles Archive

№ 3/296, 2019

Title
Authors
Category
Influence of inelasticity of environment on AVO analysis in seismic exploration
Geosciences

Authors: Aleksei S. GARKIN graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2013. He is postgraduate student of the Dept. of Exploration Geophysics at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Research interests — amplitude seismic inversion. E-mail: agarkin@list.ru

Abstract: The absorption effect on AVO is shown. Full wave modeling and qualitative, quantitative analysis of absorption were carried out. Probability density functions of errors in the inversion of elastic parameters were estimated based on the simultaneous inversion

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: seismic survey, modeling, AVO, absorption, inversion

Bibliography:
1. Kozlov E.A. Modeli sredi v razvedochnoi seismologii [Environment models in exploration seismology]. Tver’: GERS, 2006, p. 300-335, 384-386.
2. Ryzhkov V.I. Seysmoakusticheskie neuprugie effekti. Ih primenenie pri poiskah, razvedke i monitoring mestorojdenii nefti i gaza [Seismic inelastic effects. Application in prospecting, exploration and monitoring of oil and gas fields]. Moscow: RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2009, p. 11, 15, 57-70.
3. Serdobolskii L.A. Otrajenie i prelomlenie ploskih prodolnih voln. Konspekt lekzii po chasti 6 kursa “Tehnicheskaya mehanika i teoriya uprugosti” [Lecture summary of part 6 for course Theoretical mechanic and elastic theory. Reflection and refraction of flat primary waves]. Moscow: RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2003, 26 p.
4. Daniel P. Hampson and Brian H. Russell, Hampson-Russell Software Services Ltd., and Brad Bankhead, VeritasDGC. Simultaneous inversion of pre-stack seismic data. SEG/Houston Annual Meeting, 2005, р. 1633-1638.
5. Frasier C.W. Discrete time solution of plane P-SV waves in a plane-layered medium. Geophysics, 1970, vol. 35, p. 197-219.
6. Futterman W.I. Dispersive body waves: J. Geophysics Res., 1962, 67, р. 5279-5291.
7. Kennett B.L.N. and Kerry N. Seismic wave in a stratified half space. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1979, vol. 57, p. 557-583.
8. Kennett B.L.N. Seismic wave propagation in stratified media. Cambridge University Press, 1985, 342 p.
9. Li Zhenzhen, Zhang Guangzhi, Zhao Yang. Least-squares AVF inversion for Q extraction. CPS/SEG Beijing International Geophysical Conference, 2014, p. 592-595.
10. Michinori Asaka Anisotropic AVO: Implications for reservoir characterization. The Leading Edge, 2018, p. 916-923.
11. Thomsen L. Weak elastic anisotropy. Geophysics. Soc. Of Exp. Geophys, 1986, 51, р. 1954- 1966.
12. Zoeppritz K. VIIIB. On the reflection and propagation of seismic waves: Gottinger Nachrichten, 1919, р. 66-84.

Physical and chemical properties and composition of hydrocarbons (oil, gas, condensate) of fields in the Lena-Tunguska oil and gas province
Geosciences

Authors: Igor V. ISTRATOV graduated from Groznyi Petroleum Institute named after M.D. Millionshhikov. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Theoretical Foundations of Oil and Gas Prospecting at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), author of over 300 publications. E-mail: ivistratov@mail.ru
Sergey G. SEROV specializes in basin modeling. He is Teaching Fellow of the Dept. of Foundations of Prospecting and Exploration for Oil and Gas, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). E-mail: sgserov@mail.ru

Abstract: The physical properties and chemical composition of hydrocarbon fluids in the fields of the Leno-Tunguska province are considered. The noted features of the physicochemical properties and composition of hydrocarbons (oils, condensates, natural gases) reflect the regional patterns of the distribution of types of hydrocarbon fluids both in areas and in sections of the province’s fields. The properties and composition of the hydrocarbons of the selected main oil and gas complexes will allow to reliably predict the expected phase composition of the hydrocarbons in new promising areas

Index UDK: 553.98

Keywords: hydrocarbon deposits, oil, gas, condensate, physical properties, chemical composition

Bibliography:
1. Gazovye i gazokondensatnye mestorozhdenija/V.G. Vasil’ev, V.I. Ermakov, I.P. Zhabrev i dr. Pod red. I.P. Zhabreva. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Nedra, 1983, 375 р.
2. Geologija nefti i gaza Sibirskoj platformy / A.S. Anciferov, V.E. Bakin, I.P. Varlamov i dr. Pod red. A.Je. Kontorovicha, V.S. Surkova, A.A. Trofimuka. M.: Nedra, 1981, 552 р.
3. Kalamkarov L.V. Neftegazonosnye provincii i oblasti Rossii i sopredel’nyh stran: Uchebnik dlja vuzov. M.: FGUP Izd.: Neft’ i gaz, 2005, р. 180-206.
4. Kleshhev K.A., Shein V.S. Neftjanye i gazovye mestorozhdenija Rossii: Spravochnik v dvuh knigah. Kn. 2. Aziatskaja chast’ Rossii. M.: VNIGNI, 2010, 720 p.
5. Kratkaja jenciklopedija neftegazovoj geologii. M.: Izd. Akademii gornyh nauk, 1998, 576 p.
6. Litologija i uslovija formirovanija rezervuarov nefti i gaza Sibirskoj platformy. Min-vo geol. SSSR, Sib. Nauch.-proizv. ob’edinenie po geologo-geofizicheskim rabotam. Sost. T.I. Gurova, L.S. Chernova, M.M. Potlova i dr. M.: Nedra, 1988, 254 p.
7. Rossijskaja gazovaja jenciklopedija. Pod red. R. Vjahirev. M.: Bol’shaja Rossijskaja jenciklopedija, 2004, p. 222-224.
8. Tektonika neftegazonosnyh oblastej juga Sibirskoj platformy. S.L. Arutjunov, A.G. Zhu-ravlev, G.A. Kiseleva, V.P. Korchagin, G.Ja. Shutov. M.: Nedra, 1982, 92 p.
9. Trebin G.F., Charygin N.V., Obuhova T.M. Nefti mestorozhdenij Sovetskogo Sojuza. M.: Nedra, 1974, p. 375-377.
10. Lobusev M.A., Bondarev A.V., Serov S.G., Kuznecov N.B. Vlijanie magmatizma Sibirskogo superpljuma na neftegazonosnost’ regiona. Trudy Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza (NIU) imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2016, no. 3, p. 56-67.
11. Fuks A.B. O vremeni formirovanija fizicheskih svojstv i sostava plastovyh UV-sistem Nepsko-Botuobinskoj NGO. Geologija nefti i gaza, 1989, no. 2, p. 46-68.
12. Shilov G.Ja., Serov S.G. Osobennosti geologicheskogo stroenija i neftegazonosnosti Sobin-skogo neftegazokondensatnogelievogo mestorozhdenija v svjazi s obosnovaniem provedenija neobhodimyh ob’emov geologorazvedochnyh rabot. Trudy Rossijskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza im. I.M. Gubkina, 2017, no. 3, p. 36-46.
13. Gordadze G.N., Kerimov V.Y., Giruts M.V., Lobusev M.A., Serov S.G., Kuznetsov N.B., Romanyuk T.V., Gaiduk A.V. Hydrocarbon biomarkers and diamondoid hydrocarbons from late Precambrian and lower Cambrian rocks of the Katanga saddle (Siberian platform). Geochemistry International, 2017, t. 55, no. 4, p. 360-366.
14. Kerimov V.Y., Bondarev A.V., Osipov A.V., Serov S.G. Influence of intrusions on formation and evolution of petroleum systems in Baikit anticlise and Kureiskaya syneclise. Geomodel 2015. 17-th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development, 2015, p. 589-593.
15. Kerimov V.Y., Kuznetsov N.B., Bondarev A.V., Serov S.G. New directions for petroleum exploration on Siberian Platform. Geomodel 2015. 17-th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas. Geological Exploration and Development, 2015, p. 579-583. doi:10.3997/2214-4609.201414004.

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Lower Miocene Formations in the Garmian block, Kurdistan, Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Kardo S. MOHAMMED graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2002 (B.Sc.), in 2010 (M.Sc.) in the same university, and graduated from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016 (M.Sc.). He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). His scientific interests are related to petrophysical analysis and reservoir modeling. He is author of 2 scientific publications. E-mail: kardo80@yahoo.com
Natalia N. KOSENKOVA graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1980. She is Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). She is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields exploration. She is author of 4 monographs and more than 20 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: N.N.Kosenkova@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The article uses data on the recently discovered oil fields of Sargala and Shakal, in the zone of the Kirkuk basin of the Zagros folded-thrust belt. The Lower Miocene formations (Euphrates and Jeribe) are the target objects of the tertiary oil and gas system in Iraqi Kurdistan, along with the Oli- gocene (Kirkuk). Formations are composed of carbonates with a few interbeds of evaporites of the Dhiban formation. In the framework of this study, 15 facies were identified based on the analysis of faunal residues (mainly benthic foraminifera) and texture-structural characteristics of sedimentary rocks. The facies of the Jeribe formation showed to be deposited of the inner part of the carbonate ramp, while the Dhiban formation corresponds to the conditions of the coastal Sebkha and isolated lagoon and shallow waters of the open sea. The Euphrates Formation was deposited in an open shallow-marine environment to the isolated lagoon

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: facies analysis, sedimentary environments, Lower Miocene formations, Jeribe, Dhiban, Euphrates, basal anhydrite, Kurdistan

Bibliography:
1. Al-Juburi A.I., McCann T., Ghazal M.M. Rekonstruktsiia istochnikov snosa dlja peschani- kov Miotsena severnogo Iraka (na osnovanii petrograficheskogo analiza, analiz veshchestvennogo sostava i himii mineralov oblomochnoij sostavliajiyshchej. Geologja i geofisika, 2009, t. 50, no. 6, p. 670-690.
2. Irak. Geologicheskoe stroenie, neftegazonosnost’ i sostoyanie neftegazovoj promyshken- nosti. obrabotka i interpritacija sejsmicheskih materialov po licenzionnym blokam v Yuzhnoj i central’noj chastyah Zapadnoj Pustyni, ocenka prognoznyh resursov nefti i gaza. M.: Sovgeoinfo, 2009, t. I, 158 p.
3. Al-Juboury A.L., Al-Tarif A.M., Al-Eisa M. Basin analysis of the Burdigalian and Early Langhian successions, Kirkuk Basin, Iraq/7-In: B.C. Schreiber, S. Lugli & M. Babel. — (eds). Evapo-rites Through Space and Time/Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 2007, no. 285, p. 53-68. https://doi.org/10.1144/SP285.4
4. Al-Dabbas M.A., Al-Sagri K.E.A., Al-Jassim J.A., Al-Jwaini Y.S. Sedimentological and diagenetic study of the Early Middle Miocene Jerib Limestone Formation in selected wells from Iraq northern oilfields (Ajil; Hamrin; Jadid; Khashab). Journal of Baghdad for Science, 2013, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 207-216.
5. English J.M., Lunn G.A., Ferrier L., Yacu G. Geologic Evolution of the Iraqi Zagros, and its Influence on the Distribution of Hydrocarbons in the Kurdistan Region. AAPG Bulletin, 2015, vol. 99, no. 02, p. 231-272. https://doi:10.1306/06271413205
6. Sissakian V.K., Karim S.A., Al-Kubaisyi K.N., Al-Ansari N., Knutsson S. The Miocene Sequence in Iraq, a review and discussion, with emphasize on the stratigraphy, paleoecology and economic potential. Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, 2016, vol. 6, no. 03, p. 271-317.
7. Bellen R.C., Dunnington H.V., Wetzel R., Morton D. Lexique Stratigraphique International Asie, Iraq, 1959, vol. 3C, no. 10a, 333 p.
8. Karim S.A., Sissakian V.K. and Al-Kubaysi K.N. Stratigraphy of the Oligocene-Early Miocene exposed in Sinjar area, NW Iraq. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 2014, vol. 10, no. 03, p. 1-28.
9. Dunnington H.V. Generation, migration, accumulation, and dissipation of oil in northern Iraq. In L.G. Weeks (editor) AAPG Habitat of oil: A Symposium: AAPG Special Publication 18, 1958, p. 1194-1251.
10. Buday T., Jassim S.Z. The Regional Geology of Iraq, Tectonism, Magmatism, and Metamorphism. State Establishment of Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation, Baghdad, Iraq, 1987, vol. 2, 352 p.
11. Dunham R.J. Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In Ham W.E. (ed.), Classification of carbonate rocks: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 1987, p. 108-121.
12. Wilson J.L. Carbonate Facies in Geologic History. Springer Verlag, New York, 1975, vol. 13, 108 p.
13. Tucker M.E., Wright V.P., Dickson J. Carbonate sedimentology. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, London, 1990, 482 p.
14. Nicholas G. Sedimentological and stratigraphy. 2ed edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, 2009, 419 p.
15. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2004, 976 p.
16. Flugel E. Microfacies of carbonate rocks. Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, 984 p.
17. Gawthorpe R.L. Sedimentation during carbonate ramp-to-slope evolution in a tectonically active area: Bowland Basin (Dinantian), northern England. Sedimentology, 1986, vol. 33, issue 2, p. 185-206.
18. Warren J.K., Kendall C.G.S. Comparison of sequences formed in marine sabkha (subaerial) and salina (subaqueous) settings-modern and ancient. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 1985, vol. 69, no. 06, p. 1013-1023.
19. Kendall A.C. Facies models 11. Continental and supratidal (sabkha) evaporites. Geoscience Canada, 1978, vol. 5, no. 02, p. 66-78.
20. Krumbein W.E. and Cohen Y. Primary production, mat formation and lithification: contribution of oxygenic and facultative anoxygenic cyanobacteria. In Flugel E. (ed.), Fossil Algae: Resent Results and Development. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977, p. 37-56.
21. MacEachern J.A., Pemberton S.G., Bann K.L. and Gingras M.K. Departures from the arche- typal ichnofacies: Effective recognition of environmental stress in the rock record. Applied Ichnology. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Short Course Notes, 2007, vol. 52, p. 65-92. https://doi.org/10.2110/pec.07.52.0065
22. Al-Ghreri M.F., Al-Gibour A.S., Al-Heety S.O. Facies Characteristics, Depositional Environments and Sequences Stratigraphy of the Euphrates Formation in Hadetha Area, Western Iraq. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 2015, vol. 4, issue 4, p. 181-189.
23. Boggs Jr.S. Principles of sedimentology and stratigraphy. (4th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2006, 662 p.
24. Nichols G. Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK; Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 419 p.
25. Aleali M., Rahimpour-Bonab H., Moussavi-Harami R., Jahani D. Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 2013, vol. 75, p. 110-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jseaes.2013.07.017

Assessment of the influence of fracturing on the reservoir characteristics at Sarqala field, Zagros fold and thrust belt - Northern Iraq
Geosciences

Authors: Hoshmanad M. ALI graduated from the University of Sulaimani in 2012, from the Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2016. He is post-graduate student at the Department of Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). Scientific interests are related with tectonics and structural studies as well as fracture modeling of fractured oil and gas reservoirs. E-mail: mustafahoshmand1@gmail.com
Sergey F. KHAFIZOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1987. He is Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences and AAPG, Head of the Geology of Hydrocarbon Systems Department at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas fields’ exploration. He is author of four mo-nographs and more than 60 scientific publications in Russian and international periodicals. E-mail: khafizov@gubkin.ru

Abstract: We consider the fracture modeling on the base of stress inversion model, as a tool for detecting discontinuities in Jeribe/U. Dhiban carbonate reservoir and, consequently, determining prospective areas for drilling wells at Sarqala field, North of Iraq. This method works on the stress heterogeneity caused by the activation of the main faults, and is formalized using the boundary element method in Petrel software

Index UDK: 550.8

Keywords: Zagros fold thrust belt, geomechanics, inversion of paleostresses, faults, tectonics, fracture network (DFN)

Bibliography:
1. Al-Kadhimi J.A.M., Sissekian V.I., Fattah A.S. and Deikran D.B. Tectonic Map of Iraq Series of Geological Maps of Iraq scale 1:1 000 000, sheet, GEOSURV. Baghdad, Iraq, 1996, 2 nd-ed., no. 2.
2. Dewey J.F., Holdsworth R.E., Strachan R.A. Transpression and transtension zones. Geological Society, London, 1998. DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1998.135.01.01.
3. McClay K. and Bonora M. Analog models of restraining stepovers in strike-slip fault systems. AAPG Bulletin, 2001, vol. 85, no. 2. p. 233–260.
4.
Hama Amin R.A. Geochemical characterization of the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish formation speak of his high potential in the south-eastern part of Iraqi Kurdistan. Oil&Gas Journal Russia, 2017, no. 8 [118], p. 50-55.

Multiphase pump to control water influx in gas and gas condensate wells
Geosciences

Authors: Mikhail A. MOKHOV is Professor of the Department of Development and Operation of Oil Fields from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research Univer- sity), Doctor of Technical Sciences. He teaches courses in “Well Operation in Complicated Conditions”, “Technology and Equipment of Oil Production by Submersible pumps in Complicated Conditions”, “Borehole Oil Production”. He is Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education of the Russian Federation, Honorary oilman, Laureate of the Russian Government prize in science and technology. He is author of 10 textbooks, 80 scientific works, including 5 monographs.
E-mail: gasseparator@mail.ru
Sergey V. KRUGLOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) with Master Degree in Oil and Gas Field Development in 2017. He works as oil recovery operator at OOO LUKOIL-WESTERN SIBERIA.
E-mail: Kruglov.sv93@mail.ru

Abstract: The problem of gas and gas condensate wells flooding was considered. The existing methods of control of the complication were analyzed. The conclu- sion about highest effectivity of artificial lift systems was made. The basic con- figuration of the gas and gas condensate wells equipment for artificial water recovery was discussed. A concept of submersible pump was designed that is able to operate with high gas concentration and large amount of suspended particles

Index UDK: 622.324.5

Keywords: оil and gas recovery, water influx in gas wells, artificial lift, multiphase pump

Bibliography:
1. Li Dzh., Nikkens G., Ujells M. Jekspluatacija obvodnjajushhihsja gazovyh skvazhin. Tehnologicheskie reshenija po udaleniju zhidkosti iz skvazhin. M.: Premium Inzhiniring, 2008, 384 р.
2. Drozdov A.N. Jekspluatacija nizkonapornyh gazovyh i gazokondensatnyh skvazhin meha-nizirovannym sposobom. Gazovaja promyshlennost’. Special’nyj vypusk zhurnala RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina — 80 let. Aprel’ 2010, p. 63-67.
3. Suhendar A.D., Kurniawan R., Lizcano E. Gas Well Deliquification for Maximising Recovery from Mature Gas Assets. IPTC-16915, presented at the International Petroleum Technology Confe-rence, 26-28 March 2013, Beijing, China.
4. Imbo P. First Off-Shore Installation Wellhead Compressor Dewatering System. OMC-2015-404, presented at the Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, 25-27 March 2015, Ravenna, Italy.
5. Morrison G., Kroupa R., Patil A., Xu J., Scott S.L., Olson S. Experimental Investigation of Wellhead Twin-Screw Pump for Gas Well Deliquification. SPE-159910-MS, presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 8-10 October 2012, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
6. Minlikaev V.Z., Dikamov D.V., Korjakin A.Ju. i dr. Novyj jetap sovershenstvovanija tehno-logij jekspluatacii skvazhin senomanskih zalezhej. Gazovaja promyshlennost’, 2014, no. 3, p. 85-88.
7. Drozdov A.N., Ermolaev A.I., Bulatov G.G. Novaja tehnologija mehanizirovannoj nasosnoj jekspluatacii obvodnjonnyh gazovyh skvazhin dlja dobychi nizkonapornogo gaza v oslozhnjonnyh uslovijah. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2008, no. 6, p. 54-58.
8. Drozdov A.N. Tehnologija i tehnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennyh uslovijah. M.: MAKS press, 2008, 312 p.
9. Xueqing T. Over Four Decades’ Experience With Gas Dewatering at Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs in South-Sichuan, China, What Have We Learned? SPE-176394-MS, presented at the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, 20-22 October 2015, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia.
10. Kolubaev A.S., Kuznecov V.I. Issledovanie jeffektivnosti metodov preduprezhdenija obvodnenija gazodobyvajushhih skvazhin na fil’tracionnoj modeli s dvojnoj sredoj. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2015, no. 11, p. 72-76.
11. Ivanov S.I., Karnauhov S.M., Donskov K.V., Baishev V.Z. Sostojanie i perspektivy obespe-chenija ustojchivoj raboty skvazhin na Orenburgskom NGKM v uslovijah snizhenija plastovyh davlenij. Vserossijskaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferencija “Problemy i perspektivy kompleksnogo ispol’zovanija nizkonapornogo gaza v ustojchivom razvitii social’noj sfery gazodobyvajushhih regionov” (Nadym, mart 2003 g.). M.: OOO “IRC Gazprom”, 2003, p. 289-296.

Authors: Vasiliy V. MEKHOV is bachelor student of the Department of Machines and Equipment for the Oil and Gas Industry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He specializes in the design of drilling equipment.
E-mail: mekhov.vv@yandex.ru
Valeriy A. SLYSHENKOV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1971. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Machines and Equipment for the Oil and Gas Industry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the development, creation and introduction of new machines and aggregates with a volumetric hydraulic drive. He is author of more than 20 scientific papers and inventions.
E-mail: slychenkov@yandex.ru
Sergey S. PEKIN graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1976. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Machines and Equipment for the Oil and Gas Industry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the development, creation and introduction of new samples of oilfield equipment, diagnostics and exploration of operational efficiency. He is author of 48 publications, including 21 scientific articles, 9 educational and methodical publications, holds 15 patents for a utility model and 2 patents for an invention.
E-mail: pekinss@gmail.com
Andrey V. BULAT graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2009. He is Candidate of Technical Sciences, assistant professor of the Department of Machines and Equipment for Oil and Gas Industry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of oil and gas equipment and drilling equipment and author of more than 20 scientific publications and 6 patents. E-mail: avbulat87@gmail.com

Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the designs of existing drilling mud pumps and the prospects for the development of new ones. The drive circuits of the pumps by a crank drive mechanism, with an oblique washer, hydraulic actuators and roller screw pumps are analyzed. Examples of structures of mud pumps with a capacity of 950 kW are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various pump layouts and possible overall and technical characteristics are considered

Index UDK: 622.224.06

Keywords: drilling mud pump, piston pump, rack and pinion transmission, pump characteristic

Bibliography:
1. Catalog of the company “Horizontal” URL: https: //horizontal.su/
2. Catalog of the company “Geomash” URL: https://www.geomash.ru/catalog/oilfield-equipment/%20pump-ing_and_cementing_equipment/the_drilling_pump_hydraulic_gnb_50/

Study of deposition of droplets of liquid injected into pipeline by gas-liquid nozzles
Geosciences

Authors: Sergei A. KULIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2007. He is specialist in the field of gas control technology in the company “RMG RUS”. Research interests: liquid spraying by centrifugal and gas-liquid nozzles. He is author of 3 scientific publications. E-mail: kulikov.sergey.a@gmail.com
Irina S. KULIKOVA graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 2009. She is Candidate of Technical Sciences. She is Assistant of the Department of Machines and Equipment for Oil and Gas Industry at Gubkin Russian State University (National Research University) of Oil and Gas. Her scientific interests are liquid and gas spraying, technology and equipment for localization and response of oil spills. She is author of 20 scientific publications. E-mail: IrinaSKulikova@gmail.com
Alexander I. KHODYREV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Petrochemical and Gas Industry in 1980. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Machines and Equipment for Oil and Gas Industry at Gubkin Russian State University (National Research University) of Oil and Gas. He is specialist in the field of equipment for liquid injection in the implementation of various technologies. He is author of 100 scientific publications. E-mail: aihod@mail.ru

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of spraying liquid inside a pipeline using gas-liquid nozzles. When operating a gas-liquid nozzle installed in the pipeline, the formed droplets may deposit on the pipe wall at a distance of several meters from the nozzle, this can make the spraying process ineffective. The article presents the results of experimental studies performed on the stand, which allows evaluating the deposition rate of sprayed liquid on the walls of the pipelines with a diameter of 150, 300 and 500 mm and up to 10 meters long with one or two gas-liquid nozzles. It is shown that the deposition of the sprayed liquid occurs very intensively within the first ten meters from the point of installation of the nozzle: in most cases, more than half of the sprayed liquid is deposited. Tests have shown that the intensity of droplet deposition decreases with increasing pipe diameter and with increasing atomization fineness achieved by increasing the pressure drop of the sprayed gas and increasing the ratio of mass flow rates of gas and liquid. The use of a circuit with two identical nozzles, directed perpendicularly to the flow and towards each other, allows reducing the deposition rate of the sprayed liquid compared to one nozzle placed on the axis of the pipeline, with a pipe diameter of 300 and 500 mm

Index UDK: 66.069.83

Keywords: gas pipeline, fluid atomization, gas-liquid nozzle, droplets, deposition

Bibliography:
1. Kulagin L.V., Okhotnikov S.S. Szhiganiye tyazhelykh zhidkikh topliv [The combustion of heavy liquid fuels]. Moscow, Nedra, 1967, 280 p. (in Russian).
2. Khodyrev A.I., Kulikov S.A. The atomization process and equipment for its implementation in oil and gas production. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2011, no. 3, p. 42-45 (in Russian).
3. Pazhi D.G., Galustov B.C. Atomization equipment bases. Moscow, Himija, 1979, 216 p. (in Russian).
4. Khodyrev A.I. Oborudovanie dlya ingibitornoi zashyty ot korrozii gazoprovodov i apparatov neftegazokondensatnyh mestorozhdeniy. Doct. Diss. [Equipment for inhibitor corrosion protection of gas pipelines and apparats of oil and gas field. Doct. Diss.], Moscow, 2006, 385 p. (in Russian).
5. Khodyrev A.I., Zaytsev Yu.V., Mulenko V.V. Ustroystvo dlya vvoda dispergirovannogo ingibitora korrozii v gazoprovod [Device for spraying of corrosion inhibitor into gas pipeline]. Patent USSR, no. 1683819, opubl. 15.10.89, bul. no. 38 (in Russian).
6. Khodyrev A.I., Mulenko V.V. The inertial deposition of liquid droplets injected by swirl injector into pipeline. Territorija NEFTEGAZ, 2018, no. 3, p. 72-78 (in Russian).
7. Efimov Y.N. The results of the implementation of the process of two-stage gas drying. Khimicheskoye i neftegazovoye mashinostroyeniye [Chemical and petroleum engineering], 2000, no. 11, p. 23-26 (in Russian).

Authors: Vladimir F. KOBYCHEV graduated from Tyumen State Oil and Gas University in 2001. He is Deputy General Director for production and preparation of gas condensate, OOO “Gazprom Dobycha Urengoy”. He is author of more than 20 scientific publications. E-mail: v.f.kobychev@gd-urengoy.gazprom.ru
Sergey N. BABAEV graduated from Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1978. He is Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is author of more than 30 scientific publications. Е-mail: sbabaev@gubkin.ru
Sergey I. KOLESNIKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1981. He is Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Head of Laboratory of Physical and Colloidal Chemistry Department of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of catalysis, processing of oil and gas and thermodynamics of phase changes. He is author of more than 25 inventions and 135 scientific publications. Е-mail: sikolesn@mail.ru
Mikhail Y. KILIANOV graduated from Gubkin Moscow Institute of Oil and Gas in 1984. He is Candidate of Chemical Sciences, senior researcher at the Department of Physical and Colloid Chemistry of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of catalytic processes of oil refining. He is author of more than 80 scientific publications.
E-mail: m.kilyanov@mail.ru
Alexander V. MURADOV graduated from Azizbekov Azerbaijan State Institute of Oil and Chemistry in 1973. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Metallurgy and Non-Metallic Materials of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of corrosion of the equipment of oil and gas complex. He is author of more than 100 scientific publications. E-mail: com@gubkin.ru

Abstract: The paper is devoted to mathematical simulation of carbon dioxide corrosion process. On the base of corrosion characteristics of industrial monitoring data during gas transportation certain regularities were revealed. Theses allowed developing a mathematical model of electrochemical carbon dioxide corrosion by the parametric method

Index UDK: 622.323

Keywords: carbon dioxide corrosion, electrochemical corrosion, gas transportation, parametric method

Bibliography:
1. Markin A.N., Nizamov R.Je. CO2-korrozija neftepromyslovogo oborudovanija. M.: OAO “VNIIOJeNG”, 2003, 188 p.
2. Erehinskij B.A., Cherrnuchin V.I., Pavlov V.A. i dr. Truby neftjanogo sortamenta, stojkie protiv uglekislotnoj korrozii. Korrozija: materialy, zashhita, 2016, no. 10, p.14-17.
3. Bukleshov D.O., Jakovlev N.G. Analiz metodiki raschjota ostatochnogo sroka jekspluatacii raspredelitel’nyh gazoprovodov s uchjotom skorosti sploshnoj korrozii okoloshovnyh zon svarnyh stykov. Neftegazovoe delo, 2016, t. 14, no. 4, p. 137-141.
4. Moiseeva L.S., Ajsin A.E. Issledovanie prichin uskorennogo korrozionnogo razrushenija neftjanyh JeCN-skvazhin. Korrozija: materialy, zashhita, 2016, no, 12, p. 1-8.
5. Kashkovskij R.V., Ibatullin K.A. Nauchno-tehnicheskie aspekty korrozionnogo razrushenija promyslovyh metallokonstrukcij v prisutstvii uglekislogo gaza. Korrolzija: materialy, zashhita, 2016, no. 11, p. 1-13.
6. Shmith G. Fundamental aspects of CO2corrosion-Advances in CO2 corrosion. NACE.HUS-TON, Texas, 1984, p. 10-19.
7. Korjakin A.Ju., Kolesnikov I.M., Kil’janov M.Ju. i dr. Soderzhanie kisloroda v vodnyh sistemah i ego vlijanie na sostojanie sistem. Territorija neftegaz, mart 2015, p. 70-74.
8. Hurshudov A.G., Sivokon’ I.S., Markin A.N. Prognozirovanie uglekislotnoj korrozii neftegazoprovodov. Neftjanoe hozjajstvo, nojabr’ 1989, p. 59-61.

Technology of trunkline underwater crossing construction and overhaul temporary water retaining barrages
Geosciences

Authors: Victor G. PIROZHKOV is Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor at the Department of Technical Mechanics of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is expert in the field of calculation of strength and reliability of elements of engineering structures. He is author of more than 60 scientific publications. E-mail: pirogkov.v@gubkin.ru
Vadim A. IVANOV is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of Tyumen Industrial University. He is honored Science Worker of the Russian Federation, member of the International Academy of Ecology and Life Protection Sciences, author of more than 400 scientific works. E-mail: ivanov_v_a@list.ru
Sergei I. SENTSOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas in 1978, he is Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Construction and Repair of Gas and Oil Pipelines and Storage Facilities of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is specialist in the field of construction of gas and oil pipelines and storage facilities. He is author of over 80 scientific and educational and methodical works. E-mail: srgnp@mail.ru
Irina G. SILINA graduated from Tyumen Industrial University in 2018, specializing in petroleum engineering. E-mail: i_g_silina@mail.ru
Evgeniy A. GILMIYAROV graduated from Tyumen Industrial University in 2018, specializing in petroleum engineering.
E-mail: egilmiyarov@list.ru

Abstract: The article contains stepwise description of the technology of trunkline underwater crossing construction and overhaul with temporary water retaining barrages. In addition, the block diagram of choosing the water retaining barrage type for the pipeline right-of-way conditions is presented

Index UDK: 622.692.4

Keywords: trunkline underwater crossings, water retaining constructions, dams, culverts

Bibliography:
1. Rozanov N.P., Bochkarev Yа.V., Lapshenkov V.S., ZHuravlev G.I., Kaganov G.M., Ru-myantsev I.S. Gidrotekhnicheskiye sooruzheniya. M.: Stroyizdat, 1978, 647 p.
2. Gol’din L.A., Rasskazov L.N. Proyektirovaniye gruntovykh plotin. M.: Izdatel’stvo ASV, 2001, 384 p.
3. Lyapichev Yu.P. Gidrotekhnicheskiye sooruzheniya. M.: RUDN, 2008, 302 p.
4. Ivanov V.A., Sokolov S.M., Silina I.G., Gil’miyarov E.A. Sooruzheniye i remont podvodnykh perekhodov magistral’nykh truboprovodov. Tyumen: Tyumenskiy dom pechati, 2016, 256 p.
5. SP 38.13330.2012. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na gidrotekhnicheskiye sooruzheniya (volnovyye, ledovyye i ot sudov).
6. SP 39.13330.2012. Plotiny iz gruntovykh materialov.
7. Tomareva I.A. Konstruktivnyye i tekhnologicheskiye osobennosti stroitel’stva podvodnykh truboprovodov. Volgograd: VolgGASU, 2014, 113 p.
8. Chapovskiy E.G. Laboratornyye raboty po gruntovedeniyu i mekhanike gruntov. M.: Nedra, 1975, 304 p.
9. Chugayev R.R. Gidrotekhnicheskiye sooruzheniya. Glukhiye plotiny. M.: Agropromizdat, 1985, 318 p.
10. Shammazov A.M., Mugallimov F.M., Nefedova N.F. Podvodnyye perekhody magistral’nykh nefteprovodov. M.: Nedra, 2000, 237 p.

Determination of maximum allowable amount of imbalance of natural gas supplied to consumers
Geosciences

Authors: Farit G. TUKHBATULLIN graduated from the Ufa Oil Institute in 1972. He is Doctor of Technical Sciences, professor of the Department of Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Supply at Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), Member of the Russian Academy of Engineering and Technology. He is author of 21 inventions and 170 scientific papers. E-mail: ellkam@mail.ru
Dmitriy S. SEMEICHENKOV graduated from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University) in 2015. He is postgraduate student of the Department of Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Supply from Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University). He is author of 15 publications. E-mail: d.semeichenkoff@yandex.ru

Abstract: A methodology for optimizing the process of forming the supplier’s gas balance by clarifying the balance model and adding a special balance correction for the uncertainty of measuring instruments is suggested. The calculation of the correction introduced into the balance model based on the laws of mathematical statistics is substantiated, and the main advantages of its application for the natural gas supplier are proved

Index UDK: 519.222:519.237.4-5

Keywords: imbalance of gas, commercial accounting of gas, operational accounting of gas, gas distribution system

Bibliography:
1. Andriishin M.P., Igumentsev E.A., Prokopenko E.A. Linear trends in gas balance diagnostics. Aerospace Engineering and Technology, 2008, no. 10 (57), p. 213-217.
2. Belov D.B., Ignatiev A.A., Soloviev S.I. The problem of measurement error during commercial accounting of the resource (for example, the supply of natural gas). Methods of conformity assessment, 2012, no. 9, p. 20-24.
3. Ignatiev A.A. Evaluation of the reasons for the imbalance in gas volumes in the supplier-consumer system. Gas industry, 2010, no. 6, p. 20-22.
4. Information letter from the Federal Tariff Service (FTS) dated June 28, 2005, ref. no. SN-3923/9 “On Accounting for Gas Losses”.
5. Pavlovsky M.A. The use of mathematical statistics methods to analyze the causes of the imbalance of natural gas transport in the pipeline gas transportation system. Electronic scientific journal “Oil and Gas Business”, 2012, no. 1, p. 69-74.
6. RD 153-39.4-079-01. Methodology for determining gas consumption for the technological needs of gas facilities and losses in gas distribution systems. Enter 2001-09-01, 14 p.
7. Salikov A.R. The imbalance in gas distribution networks. Gas of Russia, 2015, no. 4, p. 36-41.
8. Tukhbatullin F.G., Semeychenkov D.S. Statistical methods for analyzing the causes of natural gas imbalance and predicting its magnitude in the gas distribution system. Pipeline Transport: Theory and Practice, 2017, no. 2 (60), p. 36-41.
9. Khvorov G.A., Kozlov S.I., Akopova G.S., Evstifeev A.A. Reducing natural gas losses during transportation through the gas pipelines of OAO Gazprom. Gas industry, 2013, no. 12, p. 66-69.